goal 10 world war ii n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Goal 10 World War II PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Goal 10 World War II

Goal 10 World War II

127 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

Goal 10 World War II

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Goal 10 World War II Causes

  2. The Rise of Dictators

  3. Mussolini and Fascism in Italy

  4. The first major dictatorship in Europe occurred in Italy • 1919, Benito Mussolini founded the Fascist Party • Fascism = strong aggressive nationalism, the nation is more important than the individual • Individualism made nations weak • A strong dictator led government was needed to impose order on society

  5. Italy would become great through territorial expansion and military buildup • Fascism was strongly anti-communist • Many Europeans feared Communists allied with labor unions would destroy their governments • Mussolini used this fear, claimed Fascism was a barrier to communism

  6. Protect private property and the middle-class • Mussolini brought full employment to the working class and social security • Promised to bring Italy back to the glories of the Roman Empire • With the Fascist militia (Blackshirts), Mussolini threatened a march on Rome in 1922 to defend the nation against a Communist revolution

  7. Liberal members of the Italian parliament demanded the King install martial law, the King refused, cabinet resigned • Conservative advisors convinced the King to name Mussolini Premier • In office Mussolini destroyed democracy and set up a dictatorship • People supported Mussolini, tired of strikes and riots • Support from industrialists, landowners, and the Roman Catholic Church

  8. Mussolini took the title of “Il Duce” The Leader • Set motion a program to bring order to Italy

  9. Joseph Stalin and Russia

  10. Russian Revolution, 1917- Bolshevik Party- Valdimir Lenin created Communist governments throughout Russia1922 Russia renamed the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics = USSR • One-party rule, no individual liberties, punished for opposition • 1924 Lenin was dead- power struggle for leadership

  11. 1926 Joseph Stalin became the dictator • 1927 under Stalin the USSR embarked on a massive industrialization push • Stalin tolerated no opposition, killed between 8 and 10 million peasants who opposed Communist policies

  12. Hitler and Nazism

  13. Adolph Hitler, anti-Communist • Admired Mussolini • Served in the German Army during WWI • The German surrender and the Versailles Treaty left Hitler and many Germans with a hatred of the Allies and for the German government who accepted the terms of the peace treaty

  14. Postwar Germany, economic and political chaos • New political parties were created one, the National Socialist German Workers Party = Nazi Party • Did not represent the working classes • Was nationalistic and anti-Communist • Hitler was one of the first recruits of the Nazi Party • November, 1923- Nazis attempted to take power by marching on the city hall in Munich

  15. Hitler intended to seize local power and then march on Berlin • Plan failed- Hitler arrested • Placed in prison, wrote Mein Kampf( My Struggle) • The book called for the unification of all Germans under one government • Claimed Germans, especially blond, blue-eyed Germans were the master race, Aryans

  16. The Germans needed space, called for expansion into Poland and Russia • Slavic peoples of Eastern Europe belonged to an inferior race which should be enslaved by the Germans • Hitler’s racism was strongest towards Jews, claimed they were responsible for the world’s problems and Germany’s defeat in WWI

  17. Out of prison, Hitler worked to get Nazis elected to the Reichstag • Great Depression hit Germany, many desperate Germans voted for radicals including the Nazi and Communist Parties • 1932, Nazi Party largest in the Reichstag • Some traditional German leaders liked Hitler’s nationalism- helped Hitler become the leader of Germany in hopes they could control him

  18. 1933, Hitler appointed Chancellor • Once in office Hitler called for new elections, had police crack down on Socialist and Communist Parties • Strom troopers, Nazi paramilitary units intimidated voters • Elections allowed Nazis to dominate the Reichstag

  19. Hitler made a dictator • 1934, President of Germany, controlled armed forces • Took title of Fuhrer- leader • Began a military buildup in violation of the Treaty of Versailles

  20. Militarists Control JapanTotalitarianism

  21. Japan experienced economic problems • Industry had to import all of it’s raw materials for production • 1920s Japan did not earn enough from its exports to pay for imports, limited economic growth and high unemployment • These problems undermined the political system

  22. Great Depression hit, nations raised tariffs, made problems in Japan worse • Military officers blamed nation’s problems on corrupt government officials • Officers felt Japan was destined to dominate East Asia • Democracy was un-Japanese and bad for the nation

  23. Military leaders and growing number of civilian supporters saw the only way for Japan to get needed resources was to expand • Wanted resource rich area of China- Manchuria • September, 1931 the Japanese military without government approval attacked Manchuria

  24. Japanese government tried to end the war, prime minister was assassinated • Military now in control • Japan had a civilian government, but it supported a nationalistic policy of expansion • Several military officers were appointed prime minister

  25. American Neutrality

  26. Dictatorships and militarism in Europe concerned America • The sacrifices made in WWI now appeared pointless • Americans supported isolationism • Avoid international commitments that might drag the US into war

  27. Nye Committee

  28. Isolationism was an attractive policy in the 1903s because of: • 1. the depression made it hard for nations with WWI war debts to the US to repay- all nations except Finland announced on June 1, 1934 they would not repay debts • 2. books were published that claimed American arms manufacturers tricked the US into entering WWI

  29. Nye Committee- Senator Gerald P. Nye of North Dakota conducted investigation into allegations • Nye Committee documented huge profits for arms factories during the war • The report made it look like these businesses influenced the US to go to war • Debt default and the Nye Committee Report turned more Americans towards isolationism

  30. Neutrality Act,1935

  31. The law made it illegal for America/Americans to sell arms to any nation at war

  32. Spanish Revolution 1936

  33. Rebellion in Spain after a coalition of Republicans, Socialists, and Communists elected to power • Revolt led by General Francisco Franco • Franco was supported by Spanish fascists, army officers, landowners, and the Catholic Church • Turned into a civil war

  34. Soviet Union sent arms and advisors to the Spanish government • Germany and Italy sent arms and soldiers to aid Franco • To ensure the US remained neutral, Congress passed the Neutrality Act of 1936, ban arm sales to either side in a civil war

  35. Rome-Berlin Axis

  36. 1936, Mussolini and Hitler signed an agreement to cooperate on several international issues • The next month Japan joined with Germany and Italy by signing the Anti-Comintern Pact with Germany • The two nations would share information about Communist groups

  37. The three nations became the Axis Powers, not formally allies until 1940

  38. The Neutrality Act, 1937

  39. Congress continued the ban on arms sales • Required nations at war to buy non-military goods from the US on a “cash and carry” basis • Send own ships and pay for products in cash • Loans not allowed, isolationists knew that attacks on neutral US shipping transporting goods to Europe brought the US into WWI

  40. FDR & Internationalism

  41. 1933, FDR, international affairs were important but secondary to a sound economy • Depression was the first priority • FDR was not an isolationist, supported internationalism • Trade between nations would work to prevent war, also believed the US should try to preserve world peace

  42. Supported internationalism, realized Americans wanted neutrality • Did warn that the Neutrality Acts may drag the US into war instead of preventing involvement • FDR did not veto the neutrality bills

  43. FDR and China

  44. July, 1937 Japanese forces in Manchuria invaded China • FDR decided to help China • Neither side had formally declared war • FDR claimed the Neutrality Act of 1937 did ot apply • FDR authorized the sale of weapons to China • Warned that a nation should not stand by and let an “epidemic of lawlessness” infect the world

  45. Americans were still not willing to go to war stop overseas aggression

  46. WWII Begins

  47. 1940 Germany was rebuilt, it is doubtful that the US could have forced Hitler to negotiate • European leaders did not attempt to stop him • European leaders had hoped that Hitler could be satisfied and avoid war • WWI was still remembered and many leaders did not want another war • Some thought Hitler’s demand that all German-speaking regions of Europe be united with Germany reasonable

  48. The assumption was that the Nazis would be interested in peace once they had gained more territory

  49. Austrian Anschluss

  50. Hitler wanted Austria and Czechoslovakia • Late 1937 Hitler increased his demands for the unification of German speaking people including those in Austria and Czechoslovakia • Gaining the two would give Germany more food supplies, defensible borders, and soldiers for the German army