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Chapter 13 Organic Compounds with Oxygen and Sulfur. 13.4 Aldehydes and Ketones. Carbonyl Group in Aldehydes and Ketones. A carbonyl group in an aldehyde is attached to at least one H atom. in a ketone is attached to two carbon groups. Naming Aldehydes. An aldehyde

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carbonyl group in aldehydes and ketones
Carbonyl Group in Aldehydes and Ketones

A carbonyl group

  • in an aldehyde is attached to at least one H atom.
  • in a ketone is attached to two carbon groups.
naming aldehydes
Naming Aldehydes

An aldehyde

  • has an IUPAC name in which the -e in the alkane name is changed to –al.
  • has a common name for the first four aldehydes that use the prefixes: form (1C), acet (2C), propion (3C), and butyr (4C), followed by aldehyde.

OOO

║ ║ ║

H─C─H CH3─C─H CH3─CH2─C─H

methanal ethanal propanal

(formaldehyde) (acetaldehyde) (propionaldehyde)

aldehydes in flavorings
Aldehydes in Flavorings

Several naturally occurring aldehydes are used as flavorings for foods and fragrances.

Benzaldehyde (almonds)

Cinnamaldehyde (cinnamon)

naming ketones
Naming Ketones

In naming ketones

  • as IUPAC, the -e in the alkane name is replaced with

–one.

  • With a common name, the alkyl groups attached to the carbonyl group are named alphabetically followed

by ketone.

OO

║ ║

CH3 ─C─CH3 CH3─C─CH2─CH3propanone 2-butanone

(dimethyl ketone) (ethyl methyl ketone)

ketones in common use
Ketones in Common Use

Nail polish remover, solvent

Propanone, Dimethylketone, Acetone

Butter flavoring

learning check
Learning Check

Classify each as 1) aldehyde or 2) ketone.O O

|| ||

A. CH3—CH2—C—CH3 B. CH3—C—H

CH3 O

| ||

C. CH3—C—CH2—C—H D.

|

CH3

solution
Solution

A. 2 ketone

B. 1 aldehyde

C. 1 aldehyde

D. 2 ketone

learning check1
Learning Check

Classify each as an

1) aldehyde 2) ketone 3) alcohol or 4) ether.

O

A. CH3─CH2─C─CH3 B. CH3─O─CH3

CH3 O OH

│║│

C. CH3─C─CH2─C─H D. CH3─CH ─CH3

CH3

solution1
Solution

O

A. CH3─CH2─C─CH3 B. CH3─O─CH3

2) ketone 4) ether

CH3 O OH

│║│

C. CH3─C─CH2─C─H D. CH3─CH─CH3

CH3

1) aldehyde 3) alcohol

learning check2
Learning Check

Name each of the following.

O

1. CH3─CH2─CH2─CH2─C─H

O

2. Cl─CH2─CH2─C─H

O

3. CH3─CH2─C─CH3

solution2
Solution

Name each of the following:

O

1. CH3─CH2─CH2─CH2─C─H pentanal

O

2. Cl─CH2─CH2─C─H 3-chloropropanal

O

3. CH3─CH2─C─CH3 2-butanone;

ethyl methyl ketone

learning check3
Learning Check

Name the following compounds.

O

||

A. CH3—CH2—CH2—C—CH3 B.

CH3 O

|||

C. CH3—C—CH2—C—H

|

CH3

solution3
Solution

A. 2-pentanone; methyl propyl ketone

B.cyclohexanone

C, 3,3-dimethylbutanal

learning check4
Learning Check

Draw the structural formulas for each:

A. 4-methylpentanal

B. 2,3-dichloropropanal

C. 3-methyl-2-butanone

solution4
Solution

Draw the structural formulas for each:

CH3 O │║

A. 4-methylpentanal CH3─CH─CH2─CH2─C─H

Cl O

│ ║

B. 2,3-dichloropropanal Cl─CH2─CH─C─H

CH3 O

│ ║

C. 3-methyl-2-butanone CH3─CH─C─CH3