ORGANIC COMPOUNDS. Objectives Compare organic versus inorganic compounds. Describe the unique properties of carbon including formation of 4 covalent bonds, polymerization, carbon chains, and introduce carbon cycle. (IPC TEKS 7D)
ORGANIC COMPOUNDS Objectives • Compare organic versus inorganic compounds. • Describe the unique properties of carbon including formation of 4 covalent bonds, polymerization, carbon chains, and introduce carbon cycle. (IPC TEKS 7D) • Describe the basic structure and function of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids. • Identify and describe the 4 types of biochemical molecules (carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids) and their functions in biological systems—CHO focus on glucose polymers including chitin, starch, cellulose, glycogen; Proteins intro enzymes and give common examples including hemoglobin, antibodies, collagen, muscle fibers, hair, nails, and cell fibers actin and myosin; Nucleic acids focus on DNA structure and intro replication; Lipids intro membranes as transition to next unit on Cell structure and transport. (TEK 9A)
BIOCHEMISTRY • ALL LIVING THINGS ARE COMPOSED OF THE FOLLOWING BASIC ELEMENTS • OXYGEN • CARBON • HYDROGEN • PHOSPHORUS • SULFUR • NITROGEN aka “CHNOPS” • A MOLECULE CONTAINING CARBON IS • CALLED ANORGANIC MOLECULE (except CO, CO2)
Unique Properties of Carbon • Forms 4 covalent bonds (because it has 4 valence electrons that it shares with another bonding atom) • Polymerization—the process by which a polymer is formed by linking monomers together through condensation synthesis • Carbon chains are formed. • Carbon Cycle
Carbon Cycle • Plants create glucose (a carbon compound) during photosynthesis and give off oxygen. • O2 is used to oxidize organic molecules in Respiration, CO2 is biproduct that is returned to the atmosphere
Carbon Cycle • Marine organisms use CO2 to make CaCO3 shells, then die and turn into limestone that erodes and enters back into the cycle or then fossil fuels are formed, produced, then burned and returned to the atmosphere through combustion.
THERE ARE 4 BASIC CARBON COMPOUNDS IN ALL LIVING THINGS: (aka BIOCHEMICAL Molecules or ORGANIC Molecules/Compounds) 1. CARBOHYDRATES 2. LIPIDS 3. PROTEINS 4. NUCLEIC ACIDS
CARBOHYDRATES • INCLUDE SUGARS, STARCHES, & CELLULOSE • PROVIDES ENERGY FOR ORGANISMS • 4 calories/gram • CHO in 1:2:1 ratio • 3 Types: • Monosaccharides • Disaccharide • Polysaccharide • Monomer/subunit = monosaccharide. • Most end in –ose
Examples of Carbohydrate Types • Monosaccharides (single sugars) • Glucose, Fructose, Galactose • Disaccharides (double sugars) • Sucrose (table sugar) = 1 glucose + 1 fructose • Maltose (malt sugar) = 1 glucose + 1 glucose • Lactose (milk sugar) = 1 glucose + 1 galactose • Polysaccharides (many sugars) • Starch • Glycogen • Cellulose
Glucose a Monosaccharide • Glucose: C6H12O6. • Main product of photosynthesis • Starting material for cellular respiration—must be converted into the form our cells can use (“ATP”) • Basic form of “fuel” in living things • Soluble and transported by body fluids to all cells, where is it METABOLIZED to release energy.
Polysaccharides: complex carbs • Formed by linking many monosaccharides • Starches: hundreds of glucose units linked together • Storage for carbohydrates in PLANTS • Glycogen: stored in human liver • Thousands of glucose units linked differently than starches in ANIMALS • Cellulose: structural carbohydrate • Glucose units, but cannot be released from one another except for a few species of organisms • Wood • Cell walls of plants ***Humans CANNOT digest cellulose!***
LIPIDS INCLUDE FATS, OILS, WAXES, PHOSPHOLIPIDS, STERIODS, CHLOROPHYLL.; made of CHO • CARBOHYDRATES MAY BE CONVERTED INTO LIPIDS • FOR LONG-TERM ENERGY STORAGE. • Monomer/Subunit: 1 glycerol and 3 fatty acids “Fat E” • 9 calories/gram • FATS -ACT AS INSULATORS • WAXESHELP PLANTS CONSERVE WATER • OILS - MAKE SOME BIRDS FEATHERS WATERPROOF • PHOSPHOLIPIDS– MAIN COMPONENT OF CELL • MEMBRANE • nonpolar molecules so they are not soluble in water
Lipids (CHO) fats come in two structures. Saturated fats—no double bonds between Carbons, Ex. animal fats, solid at room temperatureUnsaturated fats—some double bonded C, Ex. plant fats & oils, liquids at room temperature Unsaturated C-C-C=C-C-C-C-C Saturated: C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C
PROTEINS • Include meat, fish, nuts • Most complex organic molecules • made of CHON • Some also contain S, P, Fe, or Cu • COMPOSED OF SMALLER MOLECULES/SUBUNITS CALLED AMINO ACIDS • There are 20 Amino Acids (or AAs) • Each AA is made of • An Amine group (NH2) • A Carboxyl group (-COOH) • A Radical group (-R) • MAKE UP OVER HALF THE DRY WEIGHT OF ORGANISMS
Protein Formation • Dehydration synthesis • Amino acids form a protein by removal of water • Links are called peptide bonds and small proteins called peptides; larger are polypeptides
Protein Functions • enzymes that promote chemical reactions • structural functions such as collagen in skin, muscle (actin & myosin), ligaments, tendons, and bones • proteins found in muscles and hair • antibodies are also proteins • hemoglobin is a protein that carries oxygen in blood
NUCLEIC ACIDS • LARGE COMPLEX MOLECULES • CONTAINING HEREDITY MATERIAL • Made of Nucleotides (sugar, phosphate group, & nitrogen base) • DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID -D N A 2. RIBONUCLEIC ACID- R N A • D N A CARRIES INSTRUCTIONS THAT • REGULATE CELL ACTIVITIES • R N A –uses information from DNA to tell the ribosomes what proteins to make.