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The First Empires Chapter 1/Section 3. The Assyrians and the Chaldeans. I. The Assyrians. The Assyrian Empire arose about 1,000 years after the rule of Hammurabi. Assyria was in northern Mesopotamia near the Tigris River.

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The first empires chapter 1 section 3

The First EmpiresChapter 1/Section 3

The Assyrians and the Chaldeans

I the assyrians
I. The Assyrians

  • TheAssyrian Empire arose about 1,000 years after the rule of Hammurabi.

  • Assyria was in northern Mesopotamia near the Tigris River.

  • Assyriawaslocated in fertile valleys that attracted outside invaders. They needed a largearmy to protect it.

A 1 assyrian army
A./1. Assyrian Army

  • The Assyrian army fought with spears, daggers, bows and arrows, chariots, and soldiers on horseback.

  • The Assyrian army was the first large army to use iron weapons. Although iron had been used for tools for centuries, it was too soft for weapons. The Hittites (hih-tytz) of southern Assyria developed a way to make it stronger.

A 2 assyrian army continued
A./2. Assyrian Army continued

  • Assyrians were ferocious warriors. They would tunnel under walls, climb over walls on ladders, or use battering rams to knock down the gates when attacking cities

B assyrian government
B. Assyrian Government

  • The capital of the Assyrian Empire was Nineveh (nih-nuh-vuh).

  • The empire was divided into provinces, which are political districts. Each province was governed by an official who collected taxes and enforced laws.

C assyrian arts and religion
C. Assyrian Arts and Religion

  • The Assyrians built large temples and palaces, with statues and wall carvings.

  • One of the first libraries was in Nineveh and held 25,000 tablets of stories and songs.

D end of assyrian empire
D. End of Assyrian Empire

  • Lawbreakers often faced brutal punishments in Assyria.

  • Assyria’s cruel treatment of people led to many rebellions.

  • TheChaldeans (khal-dee-uhns) captured Nineveh in 612 B.C., and the Assyrian Empire soon crumbled.

Ii the chaldeans
II. The Chaldeans

  • The Chaldeans wanted to build an empire. Led by King Nebuchadnezzar (neh-byuh-kuhd-neh-zuhr), they controlled all of Mesopotamia from 605 B.C. to 562 B.C.

  • TheChaldeans, who were descendents of Babylonians, rebuilt Babylon. The city was surrounded by a huge wall. Inside the wall were palaces, temples, and a huge ziggurat.

A babylon rebuilt
A. Babylon Rebuilt

  • Babylon quickly became the world’s largest and richest city.

  • Nebuchadnezzar ordered the Hanging Gardenstobe built for his wife. The Hanging Gardens were one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.

B chaldean contributions
B. Chaldean Contributions

  • The Chaldeans studied the sky to understand the gods. Their astronomers (people who study the heavenly bodies) mapped stars, planets, and phases of the moon.

  • The Chaldeans made one of the first sundials

  • The Chaldeans were also the first to have a seven-day week.

C the end of the chaldean empire
C. The End of the Chaldean Empire

  • In 539 B.C., Persiansfrom the mountains to the northeast captured Babylon.

  • Mesopotamia became part of the new PersianEmpire.