Section 1: Conquistadores • Conquistadore Spanish soldiers who led military expeditions in the Americas. • Hernan Cortes- defeated the Aztecs and seized their gold. With the help of technology, disease, and animals. • Moctezuma II- King of the Aztecs who was defeated by Cortes. • Malintzin- was Cortes American Indian guide who act as an interpreter.
Pizarro’s Conquest • Francisco Pizarro- Defeated the Inca’s and seized vast amounts of wealth. • Atahualpa- Inca ruler. • Incans were weaken by disease and had no weapons that match that of the spanish. • Pizarro kidnapped the Inca ruler for ransom and later killed him. • 24 tons of gold and silver was sent as ransom for Atahualpa
Conquistadors in Florida • Juan Ponce de Leon Searched Florida for the Fountain of Youth. Florida- was name for Pascua florida, easter season. • Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca- explored in the region of Florida and Texas. Lived with the Native Americans for years and later wrote The Narrative of Alvar Cabeza de Vaca. • Estevanico- a Moore who traveled with Vaca and later returned to Southwest
Quest for gold • Hernando de Soto explored North Carolina, Alabama, and Mississippi for gold. First to cross the Mississippi River. • Francisco Vasquez de Coronado- Explored New Mexico in his quest for the Seven cities of Cibola. Met Pueblo Indians, explored Kansas, and reach the Grand Canyon. • Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo- Explored Coast of California allowing Spain to lay claim to the Pacific Coast of North America.
Spanish America • Spain American empire was larger than any other European Nation. • Council of the Indies- formed in 1524 to govern the Americas from Spain. They wrote laws, selected Officials, and judged legal cases. • Viceroys- royal governor.
Ruling New Spain • Three kinds of Settlements existed in New Spain. • (economic, religious, and military roles.) • Pueblos- served as trading posts and sometimes as centers of government. • Missions- Converted local American Indians to Catholicism. • Presidios- military forts, to protect towns and missions. • Catholic Church- Main reason to start new settlements was to spread Christianity.
Economy of New Spain • Encomienda System- Spanish settlers known as encomienderos had the right to tax local American Indians or to make them work on their land. • In exchange for working, the encomienderos were supposed to protect and teach local American Indians. • Bartolome d Las Casas- Priest who spoke against the unjust treatment of Native Americans under the encomienda system.
Many American Indians died from European diseases. • 1501- Spanish started bringing slaves from Africa to work on plantations. • Plantations- • Large farms that grew just one kind. • Juan d Onate- founded Santa Fe in New Mexico.
El Camino Real- Network of trails that ran for hundreds of miles that connected scattered communities in New Spain. • Colonial Society Men had more rights than women. Pennisulars- were white Spaniards born in Spain. They could hold government offices. Criollos-Born in Americas but had both Spanish parents. Mestizos- had both Spanish and Indian parents.
Religious and Political Changes in Europe • Martin Luther- Catholic Priest in Germany who protested the policies of the Catholic Church. • He wrote the 95 thesis – document describing what he thought was wrong with the church. • Protestant Reformation- religious movement that began to reform the church. • Protestant- people who protested the Catholic Church. Rejected the power of the Pope and catholic rules. • King Henry VII- 1534- English king who founded the Church of England or Anglican Church.
Conflict between Spain and England • King Philip II- King of Spain who used Spain’s great wealth to lead a Catholic reformation or war against the Protestant movement. • Queen Elizabeth I- Queen of England, daughter of Henry VIII, wanted peace between Catholics and Protestants. • She hired Sea Dogs or pirates to attack Spanish Ships carrying treasure. • Sir Francis Drake- First Englishman to circumnavigate around the world. • most successful sea dog, attack the Coast of Peru and New Spain by sailing through the Strait of Magellan.
Spanish Armada • King Philip was angered about the English attacks on his ships. • Spanish Armada- huge spanish fleet that consisted of 130 ships and 27,000 soldiers that was sent from Spain to attack England. • English ships were quicker and had better cannons.
Decline of Spanish Empire • Inflation- Sudden rise in the amount of money in use and in the price of goods. • Large amounts of gold and silver caused high inflation. • Bought cheaper goods from other countries rather buy local expensive goods.
Section 4: Race for Empires • French Settlements • Montreal and Quebec became major trade cities. • Traded and hunted with the Indians for furs and pelts.
Rene-Robert de La Salle- followed the Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico. • He claimed the region for France and named it Louisiana. • French built outpost including Detroit on the Great Lakes and New Orleans.
New Netherland and New Sweden • Dutch- laid claim to area of North American known as New Jersey, New York, Connecticut, and Delaware • Peter Minuit- Bought Manhattan Island from local American Indians and founded New Amsterdam.
English Settlements • Sir Walter Raleigh- sponsored a expedition that landed in Virginia and North Carolina. • Founded a colony on Roanoke Island. • Lack of food and Indian attacks made colonizing impossible. • Lost Colony- John White resettled Roanoke Island, but had to leave due to injury. He came back months later and found
Lost Colony • Lost Colony- John White resettled Roanoke Island. • He injured when a black powder keg exploded and returned to England. • He came back months later and found the colony deserted. • Croatoan was carved in a tree. • Virginia Dare- White’s grand-daughter was the first English baby born in the America’s. She was never found.