What is Imperialism? • The extension of a nation’s power over other lands
Definition of Old and New Imperialism • Old Imperialism – 16th Century • Colonies • Trading ($) • New imperialism – 20th Century • Nothing less than direct CONTROL
Imperialism: How & Why • What allowed some countries to imperialize others? • Economics - A desire to increase economic opportunity • Power/Rivalries - The will to exert power over other countries • Racism – Makes people believe they deserve to have power over “inferior” people • Religion – a desire to spread Christianity to new lands
REASONS • Economic • Want New Markets • Want Raw Materials • Increase Trade & Wealth • Power • Gain an advantage over rivals • Increase National Prestige – countries believe they can’t be great w/o colonies
REASONS • Racism • Social Darwinism – fit are victorious, the victorious are fit so they deserve to be in control • Race determines capabilities • Our right & duty to help the less capable (usually the minorities) • A feeling that minorities can’t take care of themselves • Religion • Moral responsibility to “civilize” • This is known as “white man’s burden” • Bring benefits of Christianity
Who do the people in the cartoon represent? • Carried are imperialists • Carriers are the colonize people • What did “the white man’s burden” means to supporters of imperialism? • Moral responsibility to civilize “primitive “ people • Bring Christianity • What does it mean in the cartoon? • Colonized people “carry” the burden of the white man • Referring to the exploitation of the colonies by the Imperialist powers
THE WHITE MANS’ BURDEN (a poem by Rudyard Kipling) Take up the White Man’s burden – Send forth the best ye breed Go bind your sons to exile To serve your captive’s need, To wait in heavy harness On fluttered folk and wild – Your new-caught, sullen peoples Half-devil and half child
Indirect: local rulers allowed to keep their authority and status Direct: Local elites were replaced with Imperialist officials Indirect Imperialism vs Direct Imperialism
Effects of Imperialism • Resistance • Peasant revolts • Nationalist Resistance • Buildup of militaries – especially the Navy. • Troops placed across the globe to protect interests • Wars • Development of international trade • Interdependence
Imperialism in Africa Who & Reasons Reaction / Effect Nationalist movements Antagonism (French v. British in Sudan) War (Dutch vs. British in Boer War) • GB, France, Germany, Portugal, Belgium, Italy • Reasons: • Rivalries – Claim land just for status • Economic – Britain wants the Suez Canal for Trade w/India, also exploring Africa for resources • Religion – spread Christianity
Imperialism in India Who & Reasons Reactions / Effects Order & stability – gov’t Built railroads Education system Sepoy Mutiny Sepoy – soldier hired by GB Disrespected Indian Culture Rifle cartridges/cow fat story Indian Nationalism Gandhi (20th century) Destruction of local industries GB made them grow cotton instead of food = famine • Britain • Reasons: • Trade • Resources
Nation Building in Latin America
Imperialism in Latin America Who & Reasons Reactions / Effects Independence Threat of Spanish & Portuguese monarchs being restored No experience with self rule Now depend on US & GB to help them stay independent from Spain and Portugal • Originally • Spain & Portugal • Later • GB & US • Reasons: • Trade/Resources
East Asia Under Challenge • China divided into “spheres of influence” • Japan an imperializing country in its own right
Rise of Modern Japan • Japan emerges as an industrial nation • Island with few natural resources • Needs oil and coal • Can get these fuels from China • Japan becomes an imperialist nation
AlliancesBoth sides are guided by self-interest and would use war if needed
The Forming of Alliances • Triple Alliance members: • Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy • Defensive alliance • An attack on one is considered an attack on all • Triple Entente members: • Great Britain France, Russia What does this cartoon imply about alliances?
Nationalism Pride in your country Ethnic groups- people with same language/culture/rituals • Slavic people wanted independent nations • Poles want Poland put back on the map, free of Russian control • Bosnians, Serbs and Croats want their own nations, free of Austrian control • How does nationalism lead to world war? • Desire for freedom was so strong that they were willing to risk war • Feelings of racial superiority
MilitarismAggressive preparation for war • Growth of armies ready to attack • Military draft • Western armies doubled between 1890-1914 • Mobilization • Build large armies and supplies in time of war • Mobilization itself was considered an act of war
Imperialism Extension of nation’s power over other lands • Reasons: • Remember?? We discussed 4 of them • Economic • Rivalries/Power • Racism • Religion • How does Imperialism lead to war? • This caused competition & many conflicts between the major powers
Alliances Nationalism Militarism Imperialism Militarism Alliances Imperialism Nationalism The Causes of WWI: Remember?
Why is this called the Powder Keg of Europe? The Balkan Peninsula – different ethnicities jockeying for power
Who is involved in the “Tension”?What is the goal of each? Balkans: controlled by Austria-Hungary • Bosnian Serbs • want independence from Austria • Austria – Hungary • Wants to suppress independence • Serbia • wants to annex Bosnia • Russia • wants to control the Balkans • Supports Bosnian Serbs
Explain the Spark that caused the war. What was the effect? • The assassination of Archduke Ferdinand (of Austria-Hungary) • Archduke and wife were in Sarajevo (Bosnia) • shooter was a Bosnian Serb • Wanted freedom from Austria-Hungary • His death set the alliance system into motion • no one was able to stop it.
The assassination led to a global war. Not only were European nations involved but also their worldwide allies and colonies.
What is the Schlieffen Plan?Why would Germany do this? • Germany’s Plan: Schlieffen Plan • Avoid war with Russia AND France • Because they were allies • Hold Russia and invade France then attack Russia • Germany declares war on France What is the effect? • To get to France • Invade Belgium who is neutral • Great Britain gets involved • to help Belgium • Britain declared war on Germany • Germany is now fighting on 2 fronts • By August 12th all World Powers are involved
What happened at the 1st Battle of the Marne? • Schlieffen Plan: • circle through Belgium into France, sweep around Paris • Defeat France quickly and move onto Russia • 1st Battle of the Marne • German advance was halted • 2,000 Parisian taxicabs with troops were sent to the frontlines • Effect: • Germany – 2 front war ~ France & Russia • WWI turns into a stalemate
Trench Warfare • “trench warfare” • fighting in ditches • from the English Channel to the Switzerland • No-man’s land: land between the ditches • Caused Stalemate • Neither troop is willing to back down • Cannot escape from their own trenches • “softening up” • Destroy trenches • State of shock • Force soldiers to leave the “safety” of the trenches to attack enemies • “war of attrition” • Wear down the other side with continuous attacks and heavy losses
Trench Warfare as seen in the video clips • War of Attrition • Massive bombing of the trenches • Softening up the enemy • Industrialization of war • Total War • Trenches • Rats feed on dead bodies • Bodies on the bottom & top of the trenches • New weapons • 1 machine gun = 40 riflemen • Tank - British • Poison gas – Germans • Shell shock?? • Battle of the Somme • 1 million men • Moved 5 miles
The Zimmerman telegram (trying to entice Mexico to join in the fight agains the US) was the last straw for the US.
Germany also angered the US by resuming unrestricted submarine warfare
Total War Mobilization of ALL resources and people Enlisted men All civilians Weapons were needed for war Everything else was secondary The Impact of Total War Notes
Bad news for the Allies were defeated on the Western Front Russia withdraws because of civil unrest Central Powers in a better position Good News for the Allies: US enters which provides a psychological “boost” for the Allies Fresh troops and resources The Last Year of the War Notes1917
New German Offensive Boxes • Germany wants to win the war outright and the chances look good • Horrible battles that lowered morale on both sides, but the Allies are beginning to take the offensive • By late September (1918)the German commander admitted that the Germans were going to lose – it was time to ask for an armistice
New German Offensive Notes • Ludendorff’s military gamble • A large risk to break the military stalemate • Supplies running low • soldier reserves depleting • German home was exhausted • July: 2ndBattle of Marne & Somme • Germans were forced back • More deaths on both sides. • Six months – Million men • Germans were out of supplies
The Peace Settlement Treaty of Versailles
Peace without Victory “Victory would mean peace forced upon the loser, a victor’s terms imposed upon the vanquished. It will be accepted in humiliation, under duress, at an intolerable sacrifice, and would leave a sting, a resentment, a bitter memory, upon which terms of peace would rest, not permanently, but only as upon quicksand,” - Woodrow Wilson
Wilson’s 14 Points - Boxes • Wilson wanted a lasting peace • Key 3 (of 14) points • Have open discussions rather than secret alliances • Reduce amount of weapons per country – lessen militarism • Ensuring Self-determination right of people to have their own nation (nationalism) rather than be ruled by others (imperialism)
Wilson’s 14 Points - Notes • To Wilson, the most important point was the creation of an international peace organization – the League of Nations • European leaders more interested in getting revenge
The Treaty of Versailles - Boxes • The Big 3 US, France, and Britain • Left out Italy • Germany not invited • Russia could not attend – civil war • Fought over what they wanted accomplished • US – League of Nations • GB – Make Germany pay • France - Security (Germany weak)