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Language Planning and Language Policy: Goals and Actors – An Overview

Language Planning and Language Policy: Goals and Actors – An Overview

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Language Planning and Language Policy: Goals and Actors – An Overview

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  1. Language Planning and Language Policy: Goals and Actors – An Overview 语言政策与规划 — 目标与参与者综述 Li Minglin and Richard B. Baldauf Jr. University of Queensland, Australia 5th International Conference on ELT in China and the 1st Congress of Chinese Applied Linguistics, May 16th-21st, 2007 in Beijing

  2. The purpose of this session is to introduce a theoretical framework for language planning goals and actors involved in the language policy and planning process. The literature on language policy and planning (LPP) is briefly reviewed before introducing language planning goals and the description of the multi-levelled actors. A Chinese example of local agency is given. 本文重点介绍语言政策与规划领域中语言规划目标的理论构架以及有关参与语言规划过程的规划者的研究,并辅以介绍有关中国英语教师在语言教育政策与规划中作用的一个案研究结果。 Abstract

  3. Language planning, which has been variously defined by scholars in their literature (See, e.g., Cooper, 1989; Liu, 2006), is broadly perceived as the organized activity to study language issues for solving language problems. (For various definitions, see e.g., Cooper, 1989; Liu, 2006.) 语言规划通常被认为是通过制订语言计划来达到解决语言问题的目的。(自1959年正式出现的language planning这一术语的描述请参阅Cooper,1989; 刘海涛, 2006。) Language Planning

  4. The exercise of language planning leads to, or is directed by, the promulgation of a language policy by government (or other authoritative body or person). A language policy is a body of ideas, laws, regulations, rules and practices intended to achieve the planned language change in the society, group or system (Kaplan & Baldauf, 1997: xi). 语言政策一般来说是政府和官方行为,是由政府或政府授权部门所颁布的意见、规章、条例甚至法律,目的是为了实现在社会或某团体、系统内针对语言变化所做的语言规划(Kaplan and Baldauf, 1997: xi)。 Language Policy

  5. Spolsky (2004):language policy is about choice, the choice of a specific sound, or expression, or of a specific variety of language, which is regularly made by an individual, or a socially defined group of individuals, or a body with authority over a defined group of individuals. The real language policy of a community is more likely to be found in its practices than its management. Spolsky(2004): 真正意义上的语言政策更有可能是存在于一个言语社区中的个人或团体的语言实践中,或者存在于这些个人和团体对语言的信念或意识中;它可能是对一个特殊的语音、一种表达方式、或是对某一种语言的选择;做出这种选择可能是某个人或者社会中某个被授权或未被授权的团体;这些选择可能会被某授权团体以正式的语言规划的方式使其形成明确的规定。 Language Policy

  6. Categories of LPP Status planning (about society) Corpus planning (about language) Language-in-education planning (about learning) Prestige and image planning (about image) 语言规划分类: 地位规划 本体规划 教育规划 声望与形象规划 Language Policy and Planning

  7. Various typologies and dichotomies bya number of language planners, e.g., Haarmann, 1990 Haugen, 1983 Kaplan and Baldauf, 1997, 2003 Nahir, 1984 对于语言规划目标的分类,不同学者有不同的分类方法,请参阅: Haarmann, 1990 Haugen, 1983 Kaplan and Baldauf, 1997, 2003 Nahir, 1984 Language Planning Goals

  8. Language Planning Goals(Kaplan and Baldauf, 2003: 202)(Chinese version for this table can be found in Zhao Shouhui (2007). 国际语言规划的新发展-以非主流语言教学为例.)

  9. 1. Policy planning goals: Status Standardisation Officialisation Nationalisation Proscription 2. Cultivation planning goals Revival Restoration Revitalisation Reversal Maintenance Interlingual Communication International Intra-national Spread 1、政策规划目标: 地位标准化 官方化 国家化 剥夺语言权力 2、培育规划目标 拯救 再生 拯救 恢复 语言维护 多语社区 国际语言 地区语言 语言传播 Language Planning Goals – Status Planning

  10. 1. Policy planning goals: Corpus Standardisation Graphisation Grammatication Lexication Auxiliary Code Standard Graphisation Grammatication Lexication 2. Cultivation planning goals Lexical Modernisation Stylistic Modernisation Renovation Purification Reform Stylistic simplification Terminological unification Internationalisation 1、政策规划目标: 语言规范化 文字 语法 词汇 副语言规范化 文字 语法 词汇 2、培育规划目标 词汇现代化 语体现代化 革新 语言净化 语言改革 语体简化 术语统一 国际化 Language Planning Goals – Corpus Planning

  11. 1. Policy planning goals: Access Policy Personnel Policy Curriculum Policy Methods & Materials Policy Resourcing Policy Community Policy Evaluation Policy 2. Cultivation planning goals Reacquisition Maintenance Foreign Language / Second Language Shift 1、政策规划目标: 课程对象 师资原则 课程目标 教材教法 财力资源 社区原则 评价原则 2、培育规划目标 语言再习得 语言维护 外语/二语 语言传播 语言变迁 Language Planning Goals – Language-in-education Planning

  12. 1. Policy planning goals: Language Promotion Official / Government Institutional Pressure group Individual 2. Cultivation planning goals Intellectualisation Language of Science Lang. of Professions Lang. of High Culture 1、政策规划目标: 语言推广 官方/政府 机构 利益集团 个人 2、培育规划目标 知识化 科学语言 专业语言 雅文化语言 Language Planning Goals – Prestige Planning

  13. Baldauf and Kaplan (2003: 33): “The actors are most likely to be (top-down) politicians, constrained by historical/constitutional circumstances, or else bureaucrats, those involved in education, or religious figures or groups …” Baldauf and Kaplan (2003: 33): 由于受到历史条件和宪法的制约,最有可能参与语言政策规划的人员是政治家、教育部门的官员、宗教人士或其他团体 Multi-level Actors in LPP Process

  14. Macro or politylevel Meso or community / organizationlevel Micro or individual level 宏观 中观 微观 Multi-level Actors in LPP Process

  15. Macro level: Mao, Kim Il Sung, Lee Kwan Yew, Sukarno, Ataturk, Nyerere Meso level: Educational systems Micro level: Teachers (e.g., Ricento & Hornberger, 1996) 宏观:毛泽东、金日成、李光耀、苏加诺、阿塔图尔克 、尼雷尔 中观:各级教育部门 微观:教师(参见: Ricento & Hornberger, 1996 ) Examples of Actors / Agency

  16. Multi-level Actors in LPP Process(Ricento and Hornberger, 1996) Institutions (各种机构),例如: schools, organized religion, the media, civic and other private and publicly subsidized organizations and the business community

  17. New interest in micro level LPP and the actors there. What agency do they have? (See, e.g. Baldauf, 2006; Canagarajah, 2005, Martin, 2005) 国际最新关注焦点:微观语言政策与规划、规划参与者及其作用(参见: Baldauf, 2006; Canagarajah, 2005, Martin, 2005) New Interest: Micro Level

  18. Teachers as implementers – they are in a position to read educational policy or curriculum documents Teachers as micro-level policy makers – different teaching objectives, teaching methodology and assessment process from those suggested in policy documents Teachers’ voice – agents involved in language policy making are not only government-based educationists or educational linguists, but schools, teachers’ organizations or associations – i.e., teachers should be part of the expertise pool. 政策执行者—教师要阅读教育政策及课程目标 微观政策制订者—教师在教学实践中不遵循教育政策及课程目标精神,有其自己的教学目的、方法和测评手段 教师呼声—政策制订者不仅仅应由教育家、教育语言学家们组成,学校、教师组织即教师也应参与其中。 An Example of Chinese Teacher Agency – Results of A Case Study

  19. References • Baldauf, R. B., Jr. (2006) Rearticulating the case for micro language planning in a language ecology context. Current Issues in Language Planning, 7(2&3), 147-70. • Baldauf, R. B. Jr. and Kaplan, R. B. (2003). Language policy decisions and power: Who are the actors? In P. Ryan and R. Terborg (Eds.), Language: Issues of Inequality (pp. 19-40). Mexico City: Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. • Canagarajah, A. S. (2005) (Ed.). Reclaiming the Local in Language Policy and Practice. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. • Cooper, R. L. (1989). Language Planning and Social Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. • Haarmann, H. (1990). Language planning in the light of a general theory of language: A methodological framework. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 95, 109-29. • Haugen, E. (1983). The implementation of corpus planning: theory and practice. In J. Cobarrubias and J.A. Fishman (Eds.) Progress in Language Planning. Amsterdam: Mouton, (pp. 269-90).

  20. References • Kaplan, R. B. & Baldauf, R. B. Jr. (2003). Language and Language-in-Education Planning in the Pacific Basin. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic. • Kaplan, R. B. & Baldauf, R. B. Jr. (1997). Language Planning: From Practice to Theory. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. • Martin, P.W. (2005) ‘Safe’ language practices in two rural schools in Malaysia: Tensions between policy and practice. In A.M. Y. Lin and P. W. Martin (Eds.) Decolonialisation, Globalisation: Language-in Education Policy and Practice (pp. 74-97). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. • Nahir, M. (1984). Language planning goals: A classification. Language Problems & Language Planning, 8 (3), 294-327. • Ricento, T. K. & Hornberger, N. H. (1996). Unpeeling the onion: Language planning and policy and the ELT professional. TESOL Quarterly, 30 (3), 401-27. • Spolsky, B. (2004). Language Policy. Cambridge / New York: Cambridge University Press. • 刘海涛. 语言规划与语言政策 —— 从定义变迁看学科发展[A],载陈章太等主编《语言规划的理论和实践》[C]. 北京:语文出版社,2006:55-60.