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Acids and Bases. Definitions of Acids. Arrhenius Acid-any substance that produces hydrogen ions (H + ) when dissolved in water. Bronsted Lowry acid-any substance that donates protons to form hydronium ions (H 3 O + ) Examples of acids: HCl, HNO 3 , H 2 SO 4 , HC 2 H 3 O 2. Properties of Acids.

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definitions of acids
Definitions of Acids
  • Arrhenius Acid-any substance that produces hydrogen ions (H+) when dissolved in water.
  • Bronsted Lowry acid-any substance that donates protons to form hydronium ions (H3O+)
  • Examples of acids: HCl, HNO3, H2SO4, HC2H3O2
properties of acids
Properties of Acids
  • Taste sour
  • React with metals
  • Conduct electricity
  • pH<7
  • Turn litmus red
  • Turn phenolphthalein colorless
definitions of bases
Definitions of Bases
  • Arrhenius Base-any substance that produces hydroxide ions (OH-) when dissolved in water.
  • Bronsted Lowry Base- any substance that accepts protons.
  • Examples of bases: NaOH, Ca(OH)2, Mg(OH)2, NH3
properties of bases
Properties of Bases
  • Taste bitter
  • Feel slippery
  • Conduct electricity
  • pH>7
  • Turn litmus blue
  • Turn phenolphthalein pink
hcl is an example of a n
HCl is an example of a(n)

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  • Acid
  • Base
  • Neither
calculating ph
Calculating pH
  • The pH scale is a logarithmic scale used to quantitatively represent the strength (concentration) of an acid.
  • pH = -log[H+]
  • The greater the concentration of the hydrogen ion (H+), the stronger the acid and the lower the pH.
sample problems
Sample Problems
  • What is the pH of a solution in which [H+] = 1 x 10-2?
  • pH = 2
  • What is the pH of a solution in which [H+] = 1 x 10-6?
  • pH = 6
  • Which is more concentrated?
  • pH=2
ph and poh
pH and pOH
  • The pOH scale is a logarithmic scale used to quantitatively represent the strength (concentration) of a base.
  • pOH = -log[OH-]
  • The greater the concentration of the hydroxide ion (OH-), the stronger the base and the lower the pOH.
  • pOH + pH = 14
practice problems
Practice Problems
  • Calculate the pH and pOH of solutions with the following concentrations and classify as acidic, basic, or neutral.
  • [OH-] = 1 x 10-9
  • [H+] = 1 x 10-7
  • [H+] = 1 x 10-4
  • [OH-] = 1 x 10-2
indicators and ph
Indicators and pH
  • Indicators are substances that change color depending on the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in a solution.
  • Litmus and phenolphthalein are examples of indicators.
  • Indicators can be used to determine the pH of a solution.
  • http://www.explorelearning.com/
a solution with a ph of 3 is
A solution with a pH of 3 is

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  • Acidic
  • Basic
  • Neutral
naming acids
Naming Acids
  • Binary acids- consist of hydrogen and one other element.
  • Use the prefix –hydro and change the ending of the element to –ic.
  • Example: HCl hydrochloric acid

HBr hydrobromic acid

H2S hydrosulfuric acid

naming acids1
Naming acids
  • Oxyacids-consist of hydrogen, oxygen, and one additional element.
  • If the polyatomic ion ends in –ate, change the ending to –ic.
  • If the polyatomic ion ends in –ite, change the ending to –ous.
  • Example: H2SO4 sulfuric acid (diprotic)

H2SO3 sulfurous acid (diprotic)

HNO3 nitric acid (monoprotic)

HNO2 nitrous acid (monoprotic)

H3PO4 phosphoric acid (triprotic)

naming bases
Naming bases
  • All bases consist of the hydroxide ion and one additional element.
  • Name the element followed by hydroxide.
  • Example: NaOH sodium hydroxide

Ca(OH)2 calcium hydroxide

Al(OH)3 aluminum hydroxide

which of the following is the correct name of hbr
Which of the following is the correct name of HBr?

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  • Hydrobromic acid
  • Bromic acid
  • Bromous acid
  • Bromine hydroxide
which of the following is the correct name of h 2 co 3
Which of the following is the correct name of H2CO3?

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  • Hydrocarbonic acid
  • Carbonic acid
  • Carbonous acid
  • Hydrogen coarbon oxide
which of the following is the correct name of ba oh 2
Which of the following is the correct name of Ba(OH)2?

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  • Hydrobaric acid
  • Baric acid
  • Barous acid
  • Barium hydroxide
neutralization reactions
Neutralization Reactions
  • Neutralization reactions occur when acids react with bases and produce a salt and water.
  • A salt is an ionic compound consisting of the positive ion of the base and the negative ion of the acid.
  • Example: HCl + NaOH  NaCl + H2O

acid base salt water

  • If the [H+] = [OH-], the resulting solution will be neutral (pH=7).
  • Neutralization reactions are a specific type of double displacement reaction.
what salt is formed
What salt is formed?
  • HCl + KOH 
  • H3PO4 + NaOH 
  • Ca(OH)2 + H2SO4 
  • Mg(OH)2 + HF 
  • HNO3 + NaOH 
titration
Titration
  • A titration is a method for determining the concentration of a solution by reacting a known volume of that solution with a solution of known concentration.
  • The reaction that takes place is a neutralization reaction.
procedure for carrying out titrations
Procedure for carrying out titrations.
  • A measured volume of an acid or base is added to a beaker or flask.
  • A buret is filled with a solution of known concentration (titrant).
  • The solution of known concentration is added until the solution in the beaker has been completely neutralized.
  • This point is called the equivalence point.
titrations continued
Titrations Continued
  • You will recognize the equivalence point because the indicator will change colors at this point.
  • This is also referred to as the end point of the titration.
  • The volume that is added to reach this point is used to calculate the unknown molarity.
example
Example
  • 25.0 mL of HCl is titrated to the endpoint with 50.0 mL of 2.0 M NaOH. What is the molarity of the HCl?
  • M x V = M x V
  • X (25.0) = 2.0 (50.0)
  • X= 4.0 M
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http://www.mhhe.com/physsci/chemistry/animations/chang_7e_esp/crm3s5_5.swfhttp://www.mhhe.com/physsci/chemistry/animations/chang_7e_esp/crm3s5_5.swf

pre lab which is the most effective antacid
Pre-lab: Which is the most effective antacid?
  • What makes an antacid effective?
  • How does the antacid affect the acid?
  • How will you determine which antacid is most effective at neutralizing the stomach acid?