Revolutions in Latin America1791-1825 - Between 1803 and 1825 a series of revolutions would sweep through Latin America. - Result- Spain to lose almost all colonies and completely drive the Spanish out of the New World
Revolutions in Latin AmericaCauses of Revolutions People in the Spanish colonies in the Western Hemisphere did not like the way Spain ruled them. They wanted to become independent from Spain. • Inspired by the successful revolutions in America and France. • Spanish mercantilist policy • required that the colonies had to buy manufactured goods only from Spain and sell colonial exports only to Spain. • Result- drained the colonies of the wealth that went to Spain 3) Unequal distribution of wealth and power among Latin Americans. - Remember the Encomienda System! • Peninsulares or people born in Spain, controlled all the important political and military positions. • Creoles, people born in the colonies of Spanish parents, tended to be the wealthy landowners, mine owners, and business owners. • Mestizos, children of Spanish and Indians parents usually worked in towns or as overseers on the big estates. • Indians, blacks, and Mulattos, or people of mixed African and European descent, worked on the great farms and in the mines. They did not own land and lived in complete poverty. They had no chance to hold power.
The Beginning of Revolutions Against Spain • 1808 – The French army under the leadership of Napoleon Bonaparte conquered Spain. • Napoleon’s brother becomes King of Spain. • Latin American colonists, led by the Creoles refuse to accept French rule and revolt. • Spanish king is put back on the throne in 1814, the revolutions continue. • The colonists refuse to return to the old ways. They want independence. REFLECTION The Creoles were the wealthiest and best educated Spanish colonists. They had more privileges and a much better life than any other colonial group. Why would they have the strongest desire for revolution?
Revolution in Haiti • Saint-Domingue - French plantation colony in the Caribbean on the island of Hispaniola. • Population - Slaves, free blacks, and mulattos, people of mixed European and African ancestry • did not have the same rights as the minority white population • 1791 the people revolted against the French colonists. • Toussaint L’Ouverture - leader of the rebels in 1801 and defeated the French • Declared their independence from France in 1804 • Result- Creation of the nation of Haiti
Revolution in Mexico • 810 – A village priest, Miguel Hidalgo led Indians in an uprising against Spanish rule. • Hidalgo and his rebels killed both Peninsulare and Criollo men, women, and children. • They were defeated in January 1811. • Hidalgo was executed by firing squad, but the revolution in Mexico continued
Revolution in Mexico Continued • Jose Maria Morelos – a priest who had trained under Hidalgo • joined the revolution in 1811 • A true man of the people, charismatic and devout. • Constructive vision and belief in a better tomorrow with equality for all Mexicans. • He became the leader of the revolution after the death of Hidalgo • Fought for: • independence from Spain • equal rights for all Mexicans • continued privilege of the Catholic Church in Mexican affairs. • Used guerilla military tactics • He was defeated and captured by Spanish forces in 1814 and executed. Special Note- A true man of the people, Morelos is greatly honored today in Mexico. The State of Morelos and City of Morelia are named after him, as are a major stadium, and countless streets and parks. He has appeared on several bills and coins over Mexico's history has
End of the Mexican Revolution • After the death of Morelos, the independence movement continued in Mexico. • 1821 – Creole soldiers overthrow the royalist Spanish government and declared a constitutional monarchy. • 1824 – Mexico declares itself a republic.
Revolution in Venezuela • 1808-1811 - lead by Simon Bolivar. • Bolivar is a wealthy Venezuelan aristocrat, educated in Europe. • Heavily influenced by the ideas of the enlightenment. • Referred to as El Libertador • 1812 – Spanish forces retake Venezuela and Bolivar flees to Columbia. • Between 1819 and 1825, Bolivar successfully led revolutions to drive the Spanish from: • Columbia • Venezuela • Ecuador • southern Peru- where he established the nation of Bolivia. • Bolivar had hoped to unite all the Latin American countries in a republic like that of the United States of America • Was unsuccessful, leading to years of political instability across South America
Revolutions in Argentina, Chile, and Peru 1810 – 1818 - Argentina fights for its independence from Spain. Military leader- Jose de San Martin. • Criollo officer who had • Served in the Spanish army during the wars against Napoleon • Heavily influenced by the ideas of the enlightenment. 1818 – San Martin leads his army over the Andes and drives the Spanish from Chile. - Led his troops by sea to Peru, freeing northern Peru from Spanish rule in 1822.
Revolution in Brazil 1807 – The Portuguese King, fleeing Napoleon’s invading French army flees with his court to Brazil. - He rules Portugal in exile from Brazil. • During this period, Brazil becomes stronger than the mother country Portugal. • 1821 – The King returns to Portugal leaving his son Don Pedro in charge of Brazil. • 1822 – In a peaceful revolution, he declares himself Don Pedro I, Emperor of an independent Brazil. Prince Pedro declares Brazil independent from Portugal in Sao Paulo on September 7, 1822.
Turn and Talk to your neighbors Answer the following in complete sentences. How did the European wars of Napoleon Bonaparte have an influence on the Spanish and Portuguese colonies in the New World? How did the ideas of the enlightenment and the American and French Revolutions influence the people of Latin America?