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EFFECTIVE WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURES
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EFFECTIVE WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURES

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  1. EFFECTIVE WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURES Gregory T. Haugan, PhD, PMP GLH, Incorporated Heathsville, Virginia

  2. Anatomy of Work Breakdown Structures • What is a WBS? • The 100% Rule • Three Types of WBS Structures • Four Types of WBS Elements • Two Types of Programs • Use of WBS to Define Activities GLH, Incorporated

  3. Anatomy of Work Breakdown Structures • What is a WBS? • The 100% Rule • Three Types of WBS Structures • Four Types of WBS Elements • Two Types of Programs • Use of WBS to Define Activities GLH, Incorporated

  4. Work Breakdown Structure • Formal Definition per the PMBOK® Guide: A Deliverable - Oriented Grouping of Project Elements that Organizes and Defines the Total Scope of the Project. Each Descending Level Represents an Increasingly Detailed Definition of the Project Work. GLH, Incorporated

  5. GLH, Incorporated

  6. WBS CONCEPT • Outline of the Work to be Performed • Provides a Framework for Defining the Work on the Project - SOW • Provides a Framework for Planning • (Work Not in the WBS is Work Not in the Project) GLH, Incorporated

  7. Definitions • A WBS Consists of Elements • The Lowest Level Element in the WBS is Often Referred to as a Work Package • A Work Package Consists of Tasks or Activities • Elements are Described by Nouns • Activities Contain Verbs GLH, Incorporated

  8. Sample Partial WBS SOFTWARE PROJECT Level 1 TRAINING MATERIALS USER DOCUMENTS SOFTWARE SYSTEM SYSTEM ANALYSIS PROJECT MGT SYSTEM TEST MODULE 1 MODULE 2 MODULE 3 Level 3 CODING TEST GLH, Incorporated

  9. Anatomy of Work Breakdown Structures • What is a WBS? • The 100% Rule • Three Types of WBS Structures • Three Types of WBS Elements • Two Types of Programs • Use of WBS to Define Activities GLH, Incorporated

  10. 100 % Rule The next level decomposition of a WBS element (child level) must represent 100% of the work applicable to the next higher (parent) element. GLH, Incorporated

  11. SAMPLE WBS - GARAGE GARAGE PROJECT Level 1 PERMITS/ INSPECTIONS CONSTR. PLANS PROJECT MGT GROUNDS GARAGE ASSEMBLY UTILITIES FOUNDATION WALLS ROOF DOORS/ WINDOWS ASSEMBLY DRY WALL/ PANELING DOORS/ WINDOWS FRAME Level 4 GLH, Incorporated

  12. 100 % Rule Importance If you follow the 100% rule, and define the WBS elements as nouns, you have won the battle to get an effective WBS. GLH, Incorporated

  13. Anatomy of Work Breakdown Structures • What is a WBS? • The 100% Rule • Three Types of WBS Structures • Four Types of WBS Elements • Two Types of Programs • Use of WBS to Define Activities GLH, Incorporated

  14. Three Types of WBS Structures • PMBOK® Guide Definition of a Project: “A temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service or result.” GLH, Incorporated

  15. Product Breakdown • Decomposition of the Natural, Physical Structure of the Deliverable • Follows a BOM Framework • The Deliverable is a Tangible Product • Most Common Example Used GLH, Incorporated

  16. SAMPLE WBS - GARAGE GARAGE PROJECT Level 1 PERMITS/ INSPECTIONS CONSTR. PLANS PROJECT MGT GROUNDS GARAGE ASSEMBLY UTILITIES FOUNDATION WALLS ROOF DOORS/ WINDOWS ASSEMBLY DRY WALL/ PANELING DOORS/ WINDOWS FRAME Level 4 GLH, Incorporated

  17. Service Breakdown • No Tangible Output Product • Main Event or “Service” • Decomposition Based on a Logical Grouping (not Physical Structure) • Often Developed Bottom-up • Detailed Activities May be Checklists • Lend Themselves to Templates GLH, Incorporated

  18. Service Project Breakdown International Conference Project Level 1 Attendees Transport- ation Facilities Program Displays Project Management Receptions Spouse Activities Presentations Tours Level 3 Papers Speakers Translators Level 4 GLH, Incorporated

  19. Results Project Breakdown • Project Does not have a Well-Structured Primary Product as a Deliverable • May Have Several Products that Collectively Achieve the Planned “Result” • The Projects are Process-Based GLH, Incorporated

  20. Results Project WBS HACCP PROJECT Level 1 1. Work Plan 2. Product & Process Analyses 3. Hazard Analysis 4. Q.A. Process 5. HACCP Plan Process 6. HACCP Implement- ation 7. Project Management GLH, Incorporated

  21. Anatomy of Work Breakdown Structures • What is a WBS? • The 100% Rule • Three Types of WBS Structures • Four Types of WBS Elements • Two Types of Programs • Use of WBS to Define Activities GLH, Incorporated

  22. Four Types of WBS Crosscutting Elements • Integrative • Analytical • Process • Project Management GLH, Incorporated

  23. Four Types of WBS Crosscutting Elements1. Integrative New Technology Bicycle Project Level 1 Preliminary Design Bicycle Project Management Level 2 Frame Seat Assembly Pedals & Gears Handlebars Assembly GLH, Incorporated

  24. Four Types of WBS Crosscutting Elements2. Analytical New PC Development Level 1 Project Management Documentation Personal Computer System Test System Analyses Structure Circuit Boards Hard Disk Power Supply Assembly GLH, Incorporated

  25. Four Types of WBS Crosscutting Elements3. Process Aircraft System Level 1 Project Management Manuals & Data Support Equipment Air Vehicle Facilities Test & Evaluation GLH, Incorporated

  26. Four Types of WBS Crosscutting Elements3. Process New PC Development Level 1 Project Management Documentation Personal Computer System Test System Analyses Level 2 Structure Circuit Boards Hard Disk Power Supply Assembly Design Procure- ment Fabrication Subsystem Test GLH, Incorporated

  27. Four Types of WBS Crosscutting Elements4. Project Management • A Special Type of WBS Element • All Projects have a PM Element • May be Looked-at Conceptually as an “Overhead” Element GLH, Incorporated

  28. Project Management WBS Element Decomposition Four Types of WBS Crosscutting Elements4. Project Management GLH, Incorporated

  29. Project Management WBS Element Decomposition Four Types of WBS Crosscutting Elements4. Project Management GLH, Incorporated

  30. Anatomy of Work Breakdown Structures • What is a WBS? • The 100% Rule • Three Types of WBS Structures • Four Types of WBS Elements • Two Types of Programs • Use of WBS to Define Activities GLH, Incorporated

  31. Two Types of Programs • Life Cycle Phases – Process Projects • Program Areas – Series of Projects PMBOK® GUIDE: A group of related projects managed in a coordinated way. Programs usually include an element of ongoing work. GLH, Incorporated

  32. A Program Life Cycle Phases • Feasibility, Conceptual or Initiation • Planning • Execution or Implementation • Close-Out • Operations and Maintenance • (Program Management) GLH, Incorporated

  33. Example Program Areas • Nanotechnology • Alcohol and Drug Abuse • Cancer Research • Anti-Terrorism GLH, Incorporated

  34. PM WBS Elements in a Program • Traditional PM Elements at Level 1 • Level 2 PM Elements for each Phase/Project • Level 2 PM Elements that Relate to Subsequent Phases • Cross-cutting Analytical Elements • Outputs for Future Phases GLH, Incorporated

  35. Program/Project Management WBS GLH, Incorporated

  36. Level 1 PM Decomposition Program Management Level 1 Administration & Budget Communications Program Support Program Control Etc. GLH, Incorporated

  37. Anatomy of Work Breakdown Structures • What is a WBS? • The 100% Rule • Three Types of WBS Structures • Four Types of WBS Elements • Two Types of Programs • Use of WBS to Define Activities GLH, Incorporated

  38. Time Sharing System (TSS) Project WBS TSS PROJECT Level 1 Project Management Requirements Specification Design Specification TSS Software • Initial Specification • Final Specification • Module 1 • Module 2 • Integrate Modules • Project Start • Project Meetings • Project Reports • Initial Specification • Final Specification GLH, Incorporated

  39. WBS in MS Project 98 GLH, Incorporated

  40. WBS and Activities in MS Project GLH, Incorporated

  41. SummaryGeneric WBS Elements PROGRAM Level 0 Program Management Phase/ Project Project A Phase/ Project Ongoing Work Level 1 1. Product Breakdown Elements 2. Service Breakdown Elements 3. Results Breakdown Elements 4. Crosscutting Elements 5. Project Management Elements Level 2 Product Structure Groupings Steps Integrative, Analytical, or Process Support and Management GLH, Incorporated

  42. Effective Work Breakdown Structures This presentation is based on the book titled: Effective Work Breakdown Structures authored by Dr. Gregory T. Haugan. It was published in 2002 by Management Concepts Inc. of Vienna, Virginia. Other books by Dr. Haugan and also published by Management Concepts include: Project Planning and Scheduling, 2002 and The Work Breakdown Structure in Government Contracting, 2003 Books may be purchased through Management Concepts at: www.managementconcepts.com or from Amazon and other on-line stores. GLH, Incorporated

  43. Effective Work Breakdown Structures Thank You Dr. Gregory T. Haugan P.O. Box 730 Heathsville, VA 22473 804 580 2166 ghaugan@crosslink.net GLH, Incorporated