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Work Breakdown Structures. Define scope of project Identify stakeholders, decision-makers, and escalation procedures Develop detailed task list (work breakdown structures) Estimate time requirements Develop initial project management flow chart Identify required resources and budget

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fifteen project management job functions
Define scope of project

Identify stakeholders, decision-makers, and escalation procedures

Develop detailed task list (work breakdown structures)

Estimate time requirements

Develop initial project management flow chart

Identify required resources and budget

Evaluate project requirements

Identify and evaluate risks

Prepare contingency plan

Identify interdependencies

Identify and track critical milestones

Participate in project phase review

Secure needed resources

Manage the change control process

Report project status

Fifteen Project Management Job Functions*
project planning
Project Planning
  • The main purpose of project planning is to guide execution
  • Every knowledge area includes planning information
  • Key outputs include:
    • A team contract
    • A scope statement (project charter)
    • A work breakdown structure (WBS)
    • A project schedule, in the form of a Gantt chart with all dependencies and resources entered
    • A list of prioritized risks
scope planning and the scope statement
Scope Planning and theScope Statement
  • A scope statement is a document used to develop and confirm a common understanding of the project scope. It should include
    • a project justification
    • a brief description of the project’s products
    • a summary of all project deliverables
    • a statement of what determines project success
scope planning and the work breakdown structure
Scope Planning and the Work Breakdown Structure
  • After completing scope planning, the next step is to further define the work by breaking it into manageable pieces
  • Good scope definition
    • helps improve the accuracy of time, cost, and resource estimates
    • defines a baseline for performance measurement and project control
    • aids in communicating clear work responsibilities
the work breakdown structure
The Work Breakdown Structure
  • A work breakdown structure (WBS) is a deliverable-oriented grouping of the work involved in a project that defines the total scope of the project
  • It is a foundation document in project management because it provides the basis for planning and managing project schedules, costs, and changes
approaches to developing wbss
Approaches to Developing WBSs
  • Using guidelines: Some organizations, like the DoD, provide guidelines for preparing WBSs
  • The analogy approach: Review WBSs of similar projects and tailor to your project
  • The top-down approach: Start with the largest items of the project and break them down
  • The bottom-up approach: Start with the detailed tasks and roll them up
  • Mind-mapping approach: Write down tasks in a non-linear format and then create the WBS structure
basic principles for creating wbss
Basic Principles for Creating WBSs*

1. A unit of work should appear at only one place in the WBS.

2. The work content of a WBS item is the sum of the WBS items below it.

3. A WBS item is the responsibility of only one individual, even though many people may be working on it.

4. The WBS must be consistent with the way in which work is actually going to be performed; it should serve the project team first and other purposes only if practical.

5. Project team members should be involved in developing the WBS to ensure consistency and buy-in.

6. Each WBS item must be documented to ensure accurate understanding of the scope of work included and not included in that item.

7. The WBS must be a flexible tool to accommodate inevitable changes while properly maintaining control of the work content in the project according to the scope statement.

intranet wbs in tabular form
Intranet WBS in Tabular Form

1.0 Concept

1.1 Evaluate current systems

1.2 Define Requirements

1.2.1 Define user requirements

1.2.2 Define content requirements

1.2.3 Define system requirements

1.2.4 Define server owner requirements

1.3 Define specific functionality

1.4 Define risks and risk management approach

1.5 Develop project plan

1.6 Brief Web development team

2.0 Web Site Design

3.0 Web Site Development

4.0 Roll Out

5.0 Support

sample gantt chart
Sample Gantt Chart

The WBS is on the left, and each task’s start and finish date are shown on the right using a calendar timescale. Early Gantt Charts, first used in 1917, were drawn by hand.

sample network diagram
Sample Network Diagram

Each box is a project task from the WBS. Arrows show dependencies

between tasks.The bolded tasks are on the critical path. If any tasks on the

critical path take longer than planned, the whole project will slip

unless something is done. Network diagrams were first used in 1958 on the Navy Polaris project, before project management software was available.

sample enterprise project management tool
Sample Enterprise Project Management Tool

In recent years, organizations have been taking advantage of software

to help manage their projects throughout the enterprise.

project time management processes
Project Time Management Processes
  • Project time management involves the processes required to ensure timely completion of a project. Processes include:
    • Activity definition
    • Activity sequencing
    • Activity duration estimating
    • Schedule development
    • Schedule control
activity definition
Activity Definition
  • Project schedules grow out of the basic document that initiate a project
    • Project charter includes start and end dates and budget information
    • Scope statement and WBS help define what will be done
  • Activity definition involves developing a more detailed WBS and supporting explanations to understand all the work to be done so you can develop realistic duration estimates
activity sequencing
Activity Sequencing
  • Involves reviewing activities and determining dependencies
    • Mandatory dependencies: inherent in the nature of the work; hard logic
    • Discretionary dependencies: defined by the project team; soft logic
    • External dependencies: involve relationships between project and non-project activities
  • You must determine dependencies in order to use critical path analysis
project network diagrams
Project Network Diagrams
  • Project network diagrams are the preferred technique for showing activity sequencing
  • A project network diagram is a schematic display of the logical relationships among, or sequencing of, project activities
precedence diagramming method pdm
Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM)
  • Activities are represented by boxes
  • Arrows show relationships between activities
  • Better at showing different types of dependencies
activity duration estimating
Activity Duration Estimating
  • After defining activities and determining their sequence, the next step in time management is duration estimating
  • Duration includes the actual amount of time worked on an activity plus elapsed time
  • Effort is the number of workdays or work hours required to complete a task. Effort does not equal duration
  • People doing the work should help create estimates, and an expert should review them
schedule development
Schedule Development
  • Schedule development uses results of the other time management processes to determine the start and end date of the project and its activities
  • Ultimate goal is to create a realistic project schedule that provides a basis for monitoring project progress for the time dimension of the project
  • Important tools and techniques include Gantt charts, PERT analysis, critical path analysis, and critical chain scheduling
gantt charts
Gantt Charts
  • Gantt charts provide a standard format for displaying project schedule information by listing project activities and their corresponding start and finish dates in a calendar format
  • Symbols include:
    • A black diamond: milestones or significant events on a project with zero duration
    • Thick black bars: summary tasks
    • Lighter horizontal bars: tasks
    • Arrows: dependencies between tasks
  • Milestones are significant events on a project that normally have zero duration
  • You can follow the SMART criteria in developing milestones that are:
    • Specific
    • Measurable
    • Assignable
    • Realistic
    • Time-framed
critical path method cpm
Critical Path Method (CPM)
  • CPM is a project network analysis technique used to predict total project duration
  • A critical path for a project is the series of activities that determines the earliest time by which the project can be completed
  • The critical path is the longest path through the network diagram and has the least amount of slack or float
finding the critical path
Finding the Critical Path
  • First develop a good project network diagram
  • Add the durations for all activities on each path through the project network diagram
  • The longest path is the critical path
simple example of determining the critical path
Simple Example of Determining the Critical Path
  • Consider the following project network diagram. Assume all times are in days.

a. How many paths are on this network diagram?

b. How long is each path?

c. Which is the critical path?

d. What is the shortest amount of time needed to complete this project?

more on the critical path
More on the Critical Path
  • If one or more activities on the critical path takes longer than planned, the whole project schedule will slip unless corrective action is taken
  • Misconceptions:
    • The critical path is not the one with all the critical activities; it only accounts for time.
    • There can be more than one critical path if the lengths of two or more paths are the same
    • The critical path can change as the project progresses
using critical path analysis to make schedule trade offs
Using Critical Path Analysis to Make Schedule Trade-offs
  • Knowing the critical path helps you make schedule trade-offs
  • Free slack or free float is the amount of time an activity can be delayed without delaying the early start of any immediately following activities
  • Total slack or total float is the amount of time an activity may be delayed from its early start without delaying the planned project finish date
  • A forward pass through the network diagram determines the early start and finish dates
  • A backward pass determines the late start and finish dates