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Chapter 12:. Systems Investigation and Analysis. Agenda. How to Develop a CBIS? Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) Prototyping Join Application Design (JAD) Activity Planning and Control Initiating Systems Development Project Selection Systems Investigation Feasibility Analysis

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chapter 12

Chapter 12:

Systems Investigation and Analysis

  • How to Develop a CBIS?
  • Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC)
  • Prototyping
  • Join Application Design (JAD)
  • Activity Planning and Control
  • Initiating Systems Development
  • Project Selection
  • Systems Investigation
  • Feasibility Analysis
  • Systems Analysis
  • The Use of CASE Tools
how to develop a cbis
How to Develop a CBIS?

A software development paradigm consists of the methods, tools, and procedures used to develop a CBIS. The paradigm is selected based on the nature of the project, the application under development, the methods and tools to be used, and the controls and deliverables that are required

Here are some software development paradigms:

  • The Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC)
  • Prototyping
  • Rapid Application Development (RAD) and Join Application Development (JAD)
  • Prototyping is an interactive approach to systems development.
what is jad
What is JAD?
  • Joint Application Design (JAD) is a modern information-gathering technique for analysis that brings together the key users, managers, and systems analysts in a JAD location.
join application design jad
Join Application Design (JAD)
  • JAD is used to cut the time required by personal interviews, to improve the quality of the results, and to increase end-user participation
  • JAD has been used as a technique to accomplish requirements analysis and to design the user interface with users in a group setting
  • JAD requires specialized skills by the analyst
  • JAD requires a commitment by the organization and users
  • Pros
    • Sooner application production for appropriate projects
    • Documentation as a by product of completing project tasks
    • Teamwork and interaction between users and stakeholders
  • Cons
    • Burning out developers and participants
    • Requiring skills of development tools and techniques from analysts and users
    • More time from stakeholders and users
activity planning and control
Activity Planning and Control

Activity planning involves the activities to:

  • Select a systems analysis team
  • Assign members to appropriate projects
  • Estimate time required for a task
  • Schedule a project
    • A Gantt chart is an easy way to schedule tasks. Gantt charts show activities on the vertical axis and time on the horizontal axis. The main advantage of a Gantt chart is simplicity.
initiating systems development
Initiating Systems Development

Systems development efforts begin when an individual or group initiates an organizational change that can product a potential benefit from a new or modified system

Two broad reasons:

  • Problems within the organization
  • Opportunities for improvement
opportunities for improvement
Opportunities for Improvement

Improvements to systems can be defined as changes that will result in incremental benefits including:

  • Speeding up a process
  • Streamlining a process through the elimination of unnecessary or duplicated steps
  • Combining processes
  • Reducing errors in input through changes in forms and display screens
  • Reducing redundant output
  • Improving integration of systems and subsystems
  • Improving worker satisfaction with the system
  • Improving ease of customer, supplier, and vendor interaction with the system
project selection
Project Selection

Not all projects should be selected for further study. Some criteria for selection of systems projects are:

  • Backing from management
  • Appropriate timing of project commitment
  • Possibility of improving attainment of organizational goals
  • Practical in terms of resources for systems analyst and organization
  • Project is worthwhile compared to other ways the organization could invest resources
systems investigation
Systems Investigation

In general, systems investigation attempts to uncover answers to the following questions:

  • What primary problem might a new or enhanced system solve?
  • What opportunities might a new or enhanced system provide?
  • What CBIS component will improve an existing system or are required in a new system?
  • What are the potential costs (variable and fixed)?
  • What are the associated risks?
feasibility analysis
Feasibility Analysis

A key step of the systems investigation phase is the feasibility analysis. For systems projects feasibility is assessed in five principal ways:

  • Technical Feasibility
  • Economic Feasibility
  • Operational Feasibility
  • Schedule Feasibility
  • Legal Feasibility
technical feasibility
Technical Feasibility

The analyst must find out whether:

  • Current technical resources can be upgraded to fulfill the project under consideration
  • Technology exists that meets the specifications

If technology is not available or not capable of meeting the specifications, do not proceed any further

economic feasibility
Economic Feasibility

The analyst must consider:

  • The time of the systems analysis team
  • The cost of the employee time
  • The estimated cost of hardware
  • The estimated cost of software and/or software development

If short-term costs are not offset by long-term gains, do not proceed any further

net present value
Net Present Value
  • Presents the time value of the investment in the information system as well as the funds flow (preferred method for economic feasibility)
  • Present value is a way to asses all the economic outlays and revenues of information system over its economic life and to compare costs today with future costs and today’s benefits with future benefits
  • Formula:

Present Value of Money = 1 / (1 + ROI) ** n


n = number of years into future

operational feasibility
Operational Feasibility

The analyst must consider:

  • The human resources available for the project
  • The operability of the system
  • The use of the system once it is installed

Assessing operational feasibility to a large extent involves educated guesswork

schedule feasibility
Schedule Feasibility

The analyst must consider:

  • Whether the project can be completed in a reasonable amount of time (balance the time and resource requirements with other projects)
legal feasibility
Legal Feasibility
  • Local regulations
  • State Laws
  • Federal Laws
systems analysis
Systems Analysis
  • Assemble the participants for systems analysis
  • Collect appropriate data and requirements (use several data collection methods)
  • Analyze data and requirements
    • Chart the input, processing, and output of the business functions in a structured graphical form (data flow diagrams).
    • Create a data dictionary that lists all the data items used in the system.
    • Analyze the decisions made (i.e, structured, semi-structured).
  • Prepare a report on the existing system, new system requirements, and project priorities.
the use of case tools
The Use of CASE Tools
  • Analysts increasingly rely on CASE tools to:
    • Increase analyst productivity
      • Draw and modify diagrams easily
      • Allow analysts to share work with other team members
      • Make diagramming a dynamic, iterative process
    • Improve analyst-user communication
    • Integrate life cycle activities
    • Analyze and assess the impact of maintenance changes
  • Upper CASE tools allow the analyst to create and modify the system design
  • Lower CASE tools are used to generate computer source code
  • I-CASE tools include both upper and lower CASE capabilities
points to remember
Points to Remember
  • How to Develop a CBIS?
  • Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC)
  • Prototyping
  • Join Application Design (JAD)
  • Activity Planning and Control
  • Initiating Systems Development
  • Project Selection
  • Systems Investigation
  • Feasibility Analysis
  • Systems Analysis
  • The Use of CASE Tools