Chapters to be lectured Chapter 1: 응용언어학이란 무엇인가 ? Chapter 2: Applied Linguistics: An Overview Chapter 3: What is Language ? Chapter 4: The Meanings of Language These four chapters will be lectured.
Group Presentation by Students Chapter 5: Language Acquisition Chapter 6: Translation Papers • Perspectives on Translation • How to become a translator • Multimedia, Multilingual: Multiple Challenges Chapter 7: The Nature of Learner Language - Midterm Exam -
Group Presentation by Students Chapter 8-1: A Methodological History of Language Teaching Chapter 8-2: The Present: An Informed Approach Chapter 9: The Empirical Basis of Second Language Teaching and Learning Chapter 10: What do sociolinguists study? Chapter 11: Multimedia Papers 11-1: 정보통신 교육(ICT)과 영어교육
Group Presentation by Students 11-2 : Technology in the classroom: Practice and Promise in the 21st century. 11-3: Computers and Language Learning: An Overview - Final Exam -
영어응용입문AppliedLinguistics Linguistics Psychology Education
영어응용입문AppliedLinguistics • I. 정의6 • 1. 태동기 (1940년 중반 - 50년대): 외국어 교수론 (구주주의와 행동주의의 결합) • 2. 정립기 (1960년대): 음성 언어학, 기술 언어학, 의미론, 교육학, 비교문체론, 심리언어학, 수리언어학, 과학, 공학 들의 개념으로 확장 • 3. 격동기 (1970년대): Chomsky의 인지주의 이론과 인지 심리학의 결합 • 인본주의적이고 자연주의적인 접근법, 의사소통교수 요목, 컴퓨터 언어학습, 언어습득론, 언어정책 분야가 포함됨
4. 심화기 (1980년 후반-90년대): 언어교육, 언어교육정책, 법학, 비즈니스, 과학분야를 응용언어학분야에 포함 • 5. 응용언어학의 연구 영역 A. 핵심 응용언어학 연구영역 (50%): 언어교수론, 언어습득분야, 언어평가, 컴퓨터 응용언어학습 등 B. 비핵심 응용언어학 연구영역 (45%): 언어정책과 계획, 언어와 직업, 언어병리학, 이중언어 및 다중 언어교육론
C. 응용언어학 이론 연구 (5%): 응용언어학 연구분야 자체에 관한 연구 • D. Angelis의 연구에 포함되지 않았지만 응용언어학분야에 포함시킬 수 있는 영역 • 심리언어학, 사회언어학, 언어과 컴퓨터 공학, 특수직업에 관한 언어연구, 어휘분류 및 사전 편찬, 번역과 통역, 문체연구 등 • II. 응용언어학 연구는 왜 필요한 것인가 ? • 1. 이론적 측면: 언어습득과 언어이론 관계가 상호 보완적으로 바뀜
2. 실용적인 측면 • 이유1: 언어습득연구를 교수에 활용 (예: 오류 수정) • 이유 2: 습득연구결과를 토대로 ELT/ESL 학습물 • 구성 • 이유 3: 학습전략과 교수전략을 연구 • 이유 4: 컴퓨터 보조 언어학습연구 • 이유 5: 의사소통 교수 요목작성 • 이유 6: 신경언어학등과 같은 분야에 응용가능성이 • 큼 III. 끝맺는글 • 현재 학문에 응용시킬수 있는 여지가 매우 큼. 따라서 학제간 연구가 필요함.
Chapter 2: Applied Linguistics: An Overview Origins of the Concept It is a central feature of applied Linguistics that it is task- related, problem-oriented, project-oriented, and demand-led. It is also fundamentally based in academic disciplines.
DEFINITIONS, DISCIPLINES,AND APPLIED LINGUISTICS • 1. Applied linguistics is based in intellectual inquiry, gives rise to and makes use of research, and is discipline-related. • 2. Linguistics is essential to applied linguistics, but is not the only discipline that contributes to it. • 3. The choice of which disciplines are involved in particular applied-linguistic circumstances, and which parts of those disciplines on what the circumstances are.
4. The multidisciplinary nature of applied linguistics requires that its practical operations be realized in a number of different domains of human activity. 5. Applied linguistics is typically concerned with achieving and end, with improving existing language-related operations, and with solving language-related problems. 6. Linguists are not exempt from being socially accountable, from displaying a social conscience, and therefore, when possible, they should use their knowledge and understanding in the service of humanity.
3. Domains of Applied Linguistics 1)Language Teaching: Linguistics, Psychology, Pedagogy ELT, FLT, Teaching Methodology, Second Language Acquisition, Language Testing, etc. 2) Language policy and planning: When to start foreign language education and how 3) Speech-communication Research Machine Translation, Speech Recognition, Automatic Synthesis of Speech, Artificial Intelligence, Man/machine Communication
Domains of Applied Linguistics • 4) Specialized Occupational Languages • airline pilots, air-traffic controller • radio communications, Police Talk • Submarine Talk • 5) Speech Therapy • Language Disorder, Rehablitation of Speech • Hearing impaired Children • 6) Lexicography and Dictionary-Making Dictionary Making, Cobuild Dictionary
Domains of Applied Linguistics 7) Translation and Interpretation Techniques and Methods, Requirements, Automatic Translation Training translators and Interpreters 8)Language and Professions Doctor-patient, Lawyer-Clients
Relations between Theory and Practice: interdependency <Theory-dominated paradigm > 1. That a current best theory exists is based in linguistics. 2. That the most important task of the scholar is to contribute to the development of that theory 3. That the theory determines what research is needed 4. That practice should be confined to the validated results of that research < Pragmatic-Paradigm> Based on extensive practical teaching, Second Language Acquisition The validated results of research will contribute to a great understanding of theoretical issues.
Intellectual Exchange in Applied Linguistics Linguistic Research Neurological, Surgeon => Neurolinguist Physicists and Cosmologists Computer Scientists
Conclusion Plurality of application of AL to other fields • Applied Linguists are being created by taking graduates, usually with subsequent experience as a teacher or in some other profession, giving them a broad training in a number of disciplines, of which linguistics is the inescapable core.
Homework Set #1 • (From Chapter 1) • Question 1: 영어학이나 이론을 응용할 수 있는 가장 대표적인 분야를 한가지 들고 제반 여건이 하락한다면 본인은 실제적으로 어떻게 응용할것 인지를 쓰라. • Question 2: 직업과 관계되는 분야에서 영어를 응용할 수 있는 것들을 들 수 있고 그 각각의 특징을 설명하라. • Question 3: 응용언어학이 필요한 대표적인 이유를 하나 들어 자세하게 설명하라.
(From Chapter 2) • Question 4: 응용언어학과 Language Teaching관계를 설명하시오. • Question 5: Theory와 Practice관계를 네가지 측면에서 설명하시오.
Chapter 3: What is Language ? 1. Linguistic Knowledge - the capacity to produce sounds that signify certain meanings and to understand or interpret the sounds produced by others • My godfather who was born in Sweden and who now lives in Iowa is named . • Disa, after a Viking queen. 2. Knowledge of Words 1) Arbitrary Relation of Form and Meaning
maison (French) dom (Russian) casa (Spanish) house (English) 집 (Korean)
2) Signs are mimetic or iconic → conventional 3) Sound symbolism - words whose pronunciation suggests the meaning • Onomatopoeic - the sounds of the words supposedly imitate the sounds of nature Example: cockadoodledoo (English), kukuriku (Russian) • gl-sound (sight): glare, glint, gleam, glitter, glossy, glaze, glance, glimmer, glimpse, glisten
4) The Creativity of Linguistics Knowledge (1) creative aspect of language use: we are able to produce new sentences never spoken before and to understand sentences never heard before (2) Can you think of the following sentence ? Daniel Boone decided to become a pioneer because he dreamed of pigeon-toed giraffes and cross-eye elephants dancing in pink skirts and green berets on the wind-swept plains of the Midwest
(3) No limit to the number of sentences a. This is the house. b. This is the house that Jack built. c. This is the house that lay in the house that Jack built. d. This is the dog that chased the cat that killed the rat that ate the malt that lay in the house that Jack built. e. The old man came. ==> the old, old, old, old, old man came.
(4) Knowledge of Sentences and Nonsentences Part A a. John kissed the little old lady who owned the shaggy dog. b. Who owned the shaggy dog John kissed the little old lady. c. John is difficult to love. d. It is difficult to love John. e. John is anxious to go. f. It is anxious to go John. g. John, who was a student, flunked his exams. h. Exams his flunked student a was who John.
Tell which sentence is grammatically incorrect. a. What he did was climb a tree. b. What he thought was want a sports car c. Drink your beer and go home. d. What are drinking and go home ? e. I expect them to arrive a week from next Thursday. f. I expect a week from next Thursday to arrive them. g. Lost Jane security blanket his.
(5) Linguistic Knowledge and Performance Competence - a speaker's knowledge to understand and use a native language Performance - a speaker's actual use of the language (e.g., slips of the tongue)
3. What is Grammar ? (1) Definition of Grammar - the sounds and sound patterns, the basic units of meaning, such as words, and the rules to combine them to form new sentences 1) Descriptive grammars - a successful description of the grammar and of the language itself 2) Prescriptive grammars - certain correct forms that all educated people should use in speaking and writing (e.g., prestige dialect) 3) Teaching Grammars - grammars that are taught in school for language requirements
4. Language Universals • phonology - the sound system • semantics - the system of meanings • morphology - the rules of word formation (e.g., wanted, hits, translation, etc.) • syntax - the rules of sentence formation • lexicon - vocabulary of words
1) Universal Grammar - the universal properties of language • 2) A major of aim of Linguistic Theory - to discover the nature of Universal Grammar whose principles characterize all human languages • 3) Sign Language • 4) Animal Languages a. Talking parrots b. The birds and the bees
5. What we know about language • 1) Wherever humans exist, language exists • 2) No primitive languages: all languages are equally complex and equally capable of expressing any idea in the universe • 3) All languages change through time • 4) Arbitrary relationships between the sounds and meanings of spoken languages • 5) a finite set of sounds used • 6) All grammars contain rules for the formation of words and sentences of a similar kind.
7) All spoken languages include discrete sound segments. • 8) Similar grammatical categories are found in all languages (noun, verb, adjective, etc.) • 9) semantic universals (male-female, animate-human) • 10) Every language uses a tense (past time, present, future). • 11) Every speakers of languages are capable of producing and comprehending an infinite set of sentences. • 12) Any normal child can develop his native language by age 5. 6. Summary
Homework Set #2 (From Chapter 3) 1. 언어구성요소를 들고 이것들을 구체적으로 설명하라. 2. sound symbolism이란 무엇인가 ? 예를 들어 설명하라. 3. 언어 창의성이란 무엇인가 ? 예를 들어 설명하라. 4. 언어가 보편타당 하다는 증거를 보여 줄 수 있는 예들을 몇 가지 설명하라. 5. linguistic competence와 linguistic performance의 차이점을 개인의 경험을 들어 설명하라. 6. animal communication와 human communication의 차이점을 간략하게 설명하라.
Chapter 4: The Meanings of Language 1. Lexical semantics - word meanings content words: nouns, verbs, adjectives, ........ function words: with, over, .......................... 2. semantic properties: male, female, human, non-human darken: cause to become dark kill: cause to die uglify: cause to become ugly
• Semantic property verbs having it motion: bring, fall, plod, walk, run............. contact: hit,kiss,touch ................... creation: build, imagine, make .......... sense: see, hear, feel................
3. Semantic properties and the lexicon <count/mass nouns> a. I have two dogs. I have two rice(s). b. He has many dogs. He has many rice(s). c. He has much dogs. d. He has much rice.
4. Semantic relationships 1) Homonyms - words with identical pronunciation but significantly different meanings (e.g., tale - tail) 2) Polysemy - words that have multiple meanings a. I'll meet you by the bank. b. I'll meet you by the bank, in front of the automated teller machine. c. I'll meet you by the bank. We can go skinny-dipping.
3) synomyms - words that have the similar meaning (e.g., ripe - mature, sofa-couch) 4) paraphrase a. She forgot her handbag. b. She forgot her purse. 5) Antonyms - alive/dead, present/absent, awake/asleep 6) Hyponyms - color terms - red, white, blue, grey animal - lion, tiger, leopard, lynx
7) Metonyms - brass/military officer, Moscow/Russian Government, cop/police 8) Retronyms - the redundant use of the language (day baseball, silent movie, surface mail, whole milk) 9) proper names a. Mr. Smith is coming to dinner. b. the John Smith, the California c. the Mississippi, the Queen Mary, the Empire Building, the Eiffel Tower, the Golden Gate Bridge d. The Paris of the 1920s was artful. e. The New York that everyone knows and loves is full of violence.
5. Phrase and Sentence Meaning a. They ran the bill up. b. They ran up the bill. c. They ran up the hill. d. They ran the hill up. 1) Phrasal Meaning Noun-centered meaning a. large balloon Head (center) b. the house with the white fence c. the man who knew too much
2) Verb-center meaning: Kinds of Thematic Roles Thematic role Description Example Agent the one who performs an action Joyce ran Theme the one or thing that undergoes an action Mary called Bill Location the place where an action takes place It rains in Spain Goal the place to which an action is directed Put the cat on the porch Source the place from which an action originates He flew from Iowa to Idaho
Thematic role Description Example Instrument the means by which an action is performed Jo cuts hair with a razor Experiencer on who perceives something Helen heard Robert playing the piano Causative a natural force that causes a change The wind damaged the roof Possessor one who has something The tail of the dog got caught in the door
a. The boy found a red brick. agent theme b. John put the red brickon the wall. agent theme goal c. find, V, __________ NP(agent, theme) d. put, V, ___________ NP PP (agent, theme, goal) e. The dog bit the stick. The stick was bitten by the dog.
f. The boy opened the door with the key. • The boy opened the door. • The boy opened • g. The theta-criterion states that a particular thematic role may occur only once in a sentence. *The boy opened the door with the key with a lock-pick.
Practice Questions Tell the thematic role in the following. a. Ken ate an apple quickly. b. Mary ran toward Bill. c. Put the book on the table. d. Joe ground the stonewith an electric saw. e. Helen saw the beggar stealing the shoesat the store. f. The snow damaged the entire village. g. The head of the sales department moved to the London office. h. Children ran around from the bedroom to the backyard. I. The dog bit the passerby. j. The boy opened the safe with the key.
3) Sentential Meaning A. truth condition - The Declaration of Independence was signed in 1776. The Declaration of Independence was signed in 1976. B. Paraphrase (1) The horse threw the rider - The rider was thrown by the horse. (2) It is easy to play sonatas on this piano. This piano is easy to play sonatas on. On this piano it is easy to play sonatas (3) Booth assassinated Lincoln. It was Booth who assassinated Lincoln.
It was Lincoln who was assassinated by Booth. The person who assassinated Lincoln was Booth. (4) The students gave money to the beggar. The students gave the beggar money.
D. Entailment: The truth of one sentence entails or implied the truth of another sentence. (1) Corday assassinated Marat. (2) Marat is dead now. E. Contradiction: The truth of one sentence necessarily implies the falseness of another sentence. (1) Elizabeth II is Queen of England. (2) Elizabeth II is a man. (3) Scott is a baby. (4) Scott is an adult.
F. When semantics and syntax meet (1) He can go. He may go. He must go. (2) He is able to go./He has the ability to go. (3) He is permitted to go./He has permission to go. (4) He is obliged to go./ He has an obligation to go.