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China. O. Xia Dynasty 2000 B.C.E. Known to us from legends Not enough evidence to prove it existed Farming begins along Huang He…. The Shang Dynasty 1700 B.C.-1100 B.C.E. The First dynasty to be dated from written records. Map of the Shang. Major Accomplishments.

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xia dynasty 2000 b c e
Xia Dynasty2000 B.C.E
  • Known to us from legends
  • Not enough evidence to prove it existed
  • Farming begins along Huang He…..
the shang dynasty 1700 b c 1100 b c e
The Shang Dynasty1700 B.C.-1100 B.C.E.
  • The First dynasty to be dated from written records
major accomplishments
Major Accomplishments
  • Built walled cities to keep invaders out
  • Made ivory & jade statues
  • Wove silk into elegant colored clothes
  • Perfected metal casting- produced some of the finest bronze objects ever made
oracle bones
Oracle Bones
  • 1st known examples of writing in China.
  • Used to predict the future
zhou dynasty 1100 b c e 221 b c e
Zhou Dynasty(1100 B.C.E.- 221 B.C.E.)
  • Wu, the former leader of Shang territory took over capital and established the Zhou
about the zhou
About the Zhou…..
  • Zhou in its heyday- the “Imperial Period”
  • Mandate of Heaven- authority to rule comes from heaven
  • set up agricultural system- nobles own land and peasants worked land
technological advances
Technological advances….
  • Iron came into general use
  • Built roads, and expanded foreign trade
  • crossbow
  • cavalry
  • Iron plow, irrigation system and flood control
slide16
The Hundred Schools of thought were said to have developed during the Zhou dynasty. Examples include:

Confucianism

Legalism

Daoism

These philosophies focused very little on supernatural or eternal life, instead focused on life in this world and how it should be lived

the downfall of the zhou dynasty
The Downfall of the Zhou Dynasty
  • Toward the end of the dynasty, nobles began to fight among each other for power
  • Farmers had to fight in armies which produced many crop failures and food shortages
  • Soon the empire was weak and taken over by a more powerful king
qin dynasty 221 b c e to 206 b c e
Qin Dynasty221 B.C.E. to 206 B.C.E.
  • For the first time, China was completely united as one empire
shihuangdi
ShiHuangdi
  • The First (Shi) Emperor (Huangdi)
the rule of qin shihuangdi the good
The Rule of Qin Shihuangdithe good…
  • New ideas about communication helped unify China
  • Reorganized the empire into military districts- keep local lords from taking over
  • Developed a system of weights and measures and standardized coins
  • Instituted a uniform writing system
  • Educated men, not nobles ran the country
the bad
the bad…..
  • Relied heavily on scholar advisers- became a very strict ruler
  • Imposed taxes on land owners and took away land from local lords
the ugly
the ugly……
  • Censored books and burned books that were not practical subjects
  • Scholars could not even talk of the past
the background of the excavation
The Background of the Excavation
  • In 1974, workers digging a well discovered a pottery head of a human figure
  • What they found was an ancient burial-site of the first Chinese Emperor Qin Shihuangdi.
  • Qin wanted the afterlife to be the same as his life on earth.
  • To substitute for the actual humans, Qin ordered a massive clay army to be produced for his protection.
slide28
Some 8,000 figures have been uncovered grouped in battle order, facing east, to protect the emperor, who lies in his mausoleum

The army consisted of 7,000 warriors: archers, foot soldiers, cavalrymen, and charioteers of various rank, 500 chariot horses, 130 war chariots, and 110 cavalry horses

the end of qin
The End of Qin
  • After Shi Huangdi’s death, peasants revolted and formed a strong army to defeat the emperor
  • Liu Bang, a military officer from a peasant background, led the defeat of the Qin Dynasty and declared himself emperor of the new Han dynasty……….
accomplishments under wudi
Accomplishments Under Wudi
  • Wudi reigned from 141 B.C.E to 87 B.C.E. is considered one of the most dynamic rulers in Chinese History
  • Followed the teachings of Confucius
  • Expanded empire- conquered lands to the north, including Korea and Manchuria, south into Southeast Asia and as far as northern India
  • Learned about the Roman culture Expanded trade routes (known today as the silk road)
more of wudi s accomplishments
More of Wudi’s Accomplishments
  • Government jobs were given to educated people (in the past given to family members or the aristocracy).
  • Wudi’s system of government called Civil Service (based on merit)
  • Mandarins- well educated civil servants controlled the government until the early 1900s
more accomplishments of the han
More Accomplishments of the Han
  • Ruled during the Pax Sinica- 400 year period of prosperity and stability
  • Learning became the main focus of society- expanded the language and wrote the first Chinese dictionary
  • Buddhism brought to China
  • Invention of paper made printing books easier
the end of the han
The End of the Han
  • As the empire grew in size, its borders were often under attack. Eventually, the empire’s great expansion became its downfall.
confucianism
Confucianism
  • 522 B.C.E- Confucius begins to teach
  • Taught social harmony and good government would come to China if people lived according to principles of ethics, good conduct and moral judgment
  • Reciprocity
  • “Do not do unto others as you would not want others to do unto you”
five relationships
Five Relationships
  • Ruler/Subject
  • Parent/Child
  • Husband/Wife
  • Old/Young
  • Friend/Friend
  • Each relationship has certain responsibilities to follow
  • 479 B.C.E- teachings were collected into works called Analects
legalism
Legalism
  • Founder- Hanfeizi (200’s B.C.E.)
  • Like Confucianism stressed importance of an orderly society, but in the opposite way.
  • Belief in highly efficient and powerful government along with harsh law were the key to restoring power.
  • People were by nature selfish and untrustworthy thus peace and prosperity only achieved by threatening severe punishment
yin and yang
Yin and Yang
  • Chinese theory related to Daoism
  • Two opposing forces believed to be present in all nature
  • Yin- cool, dark, female, and submissive
  • Yang- warm, light, male, and aggressive
  • For harmony the two must be in balance
daoism
Daoism
  • Daoist ideas traced to teachings of a scholar named Laozi.
  • 500 B.C.E. emerges as a major philosophy
  • Emphasized harmony with nature- rejected formal social structures and idea that people must fill specific roles in society.
  • People should renounce worldly ambitions and turn to nature and the Dao, universal force that guides all things.
  • Where Confucianism provided one’s place in the social order, Daoism emphasized harmony within the individual, one could be both