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  1. India Ms. Mitchell Cultural Revolutions

  2. India 7th largest country (land-size) 2nd largest country (population size) with 1.2 billion people Most populous democracy in the world (parliamentary) Shares borders with China, Nepal, Bhutan, Burma (Myanmar), Bangladesh, and Pakistan Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism all originated here Achieved independence from Britain in 1947

  3. A General Timeline 1757: The British Raj: British influence in India began in 1757 with the British East India Company for trading. At the Battle of Plassey (1757), British troops came in and took control of Bengal. 1857: When India revolted against the British East India Trading company, British troops went into India and took complete control, making India a British Colony 1919- Mohandas Gandhi began a peaceful “Quit India” movement to free India. August 15, 1947: India officially declares independence from the British (Pakistan had declared freedom the day before)

  4. Government: the Past India was once under the control of the Mughal Empire India gradually came under British control through the effort of the British East India Company (in search of trade opportunities) August 15, 1947: India officially declares independence from the British January 26, 1950: Constitution was created, though it has been amended many times since First Prime Minister: Jawaharlal Nehru

  5. Current Government Federal republic English and American ideas were incorporated into their constitution There are several branches of government. Each branch functions independently, but all of them operate together as defined in India’s Constitution

  6. Current Government (cont.) • The Indian government consists of… • Central Parliament • Foreign policy, defense, communications, currency, taxation, railroads • Rajya Sabha, (Upper House) and the Lok Sabha (Lower House) • State Legislatures • Law, public health, betting and gambling, entertainment, and alcoholic beverages • Judiciary • Law is enforced through a system of national courts • Executive • The President is the head of Executive branch • Actual power is held by a Council of Ministers and the Prime Minister who aid the president

  7. Foreign Relations: China • Began in 1950 when India broke relations with Taiwan and was one of the first countries to recognize the People’s Republic of China (PRC) • There have been border disputes which lead to 3 wars: Sino-Indian War of 1962, Chola Incident of 1967, and 1987 Sino-Indian skirmish. • China and India both steadily built up military infrastructures along the border • In 2012, Premier Wen Jiabao and Prime Minister Manmohan Singh set a goal to increase bilateral trade between the two countries to 100 billion dollars by the year 2015.

  8. Foreign Relations: Pakistan • India and Pakistan have had a non-friendly, even violent relationship. There is hostility and suspicion between the 2 countries • Disputes still go on to this day • 1947: Kashmir dispute. This is the main center point of all the other wars except for the Indo-Pakistan War of 1971 • Kashmir dispute was a territorial dispute over the Kashmir region

  9. Foreign Relations: Pakistan (cont.) There are also nuclear issues. The 2001 Indian Parliament attack almost brought them to the brink of a nuclear war The 2008 Mumbai attacks that were carried out by Pakistani militants interfered greatly with the India-Pakistan peace talks

  10. Foreign Relations: Great Britain • Since 1947, India and GB have had friendly relations and the two countries seek to strengthen their ties for mutual benefits • 1858 through 1947 the British Raj assumed direct control of territories of the former East India Company • The independence movement rebelled against British rule through both violent and nonviolent revolutions. They gained independence in 1947

  11. Hinduism Most prominent religion in India Third largest religion in the world after Christianity and Islam No single founder, formed of diverse traditions Often called the oldest living religion—also considered the most complex “According to Supreme court of India ‘unlike other religions in the World, the Hindu religion does not claim any one Prophet, it does not worship any one God, it does not believe in any one philosophic concept, it does not follow any one act of religious rites or performances, in fact, it does not satisfy the traditional features of a religion or creed. It is a way of life and nothing more’.”

  12. Caste System Traditional division of social order and class in India Divided into higher castes and lower castes People are born into a caste and it determines place in life and occupation Not able to transcend your caste Said to be disappearing in urban India but still very prominent in rural India Now against the law to openly discriminate against someone because of their caste

  13. The Caste System: Social Order and Class

  14. Castes—”Varnas” • Kshatriya • Second highest caste • Warriors and rulers • Take on all forms of public service—administration, maintenance of law and order, defense • Sudras • Lower caste but not as low as untouchables • Unskilled workers/Semi-Skilled workers • Brahmins • Highest caste • Priests • Scriptural education and knowledge • Vaisyas • Third highest caste • Skilled traders, merchants, and minor officials • Engage in commercial activityas businessmen

  15. Outsourcing Where do the jobs go? And what is this doing to India’s economy and social structure?

  16. Outsourcing and Bangalore • Outsourcing: the contracting out of a business process, jobs, services, etc. • To save money, meet shortages, provide support 24/7 • Example: Tech support, banking, radiology, journalism, etc. • Bangalore, India has become one of the most popular spots for US companies to outsource IT jobs. • Texas Instruments became the first multinational corporation to set up a base in Bangalore in 1985 • “Silicon Valley” of India

  17. The White Tiger By AravindAdiga

  18. The Novel Written by AravindAdigain 2008. Only 33 years old when it was published. Won the Man Booker prize that same year. Entire novel is a series of letters between an Indian man, BalramHalwai, and the Chinese Premier, Wen Jiabao. Letters written over seven consecutive nights. Set in present day. Letters trace Balram’s life from childhood in a rural village (Laxmangarh) to life as a successful entrepreneur in Bangalore

  19. Explores issues of… Religion Caste Loyalty Corruption Poverty

  20. Themes and Motifs Globalization Individualism Freedom Immoral Corruption Social class/caste “The Darkness” “The Rooster Coop”