slide1 n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Basic Principles of Animal Form and Function within this chapter: tissue types thermoregulation metabolism PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Basic Principles of Animal Form and Function within this chapter: tissue types thermoregulation metabolism

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 71

Basic Principles of Animal Form and Function within this chapter: tissue types thermoregulation metabolism - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 248 Views
  • Uploaded on

Chapter 40. Basic Principles of Animal Form and Function within this chapter: tissue types thermoregulation metabolism. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Overview: Diverse Forms, Common Challenges. Anatomy is the study of the biological form of an organism

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Basic Principles of Animal Form and Function within this chapter: tissue types thermoregulation metabolism' - danton


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
slide1

Chapter 40

  • Basic Principles of Animal Form and Function
  • within this chapter:
        • tissue types
        • thermoregulation
        • metabolism
overview diverse forms common challenges

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Overview: Diverse Forms, Common Challenges
  • Anatomy is the study of the biological form of an organism
  • Physiology is the study of the biological functions an organism performs
  • The comparative study of animals reveals that form and function are closely correlated
convergent evolution
Convergent evolution

Seal

Penguin

Tuna

slide5

Theme of this unit:

  • Life forms are machines that regulate homeostasis within a specific environment

Focus of this chapter:

  • Exchange with the environment
  • Regulating that exchange
concept 40 1 animal form and function are correlated at all levels of organization

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Concept 40.1: Animal form and function are correlated at all levels of organization
  • Laws of physics set limits on biological morphologies.
    • Provide and example.
slide7

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Video: Shark Eating Seal

slide8

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Video: Galápagos Sea Lion

slide9

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Video: Hydra Eating Daphnia

slide10

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Exchange with the environment

  • A single-celled protist living in water has a sufficient surface area of plasma membrane to service its entire volume of cytoplasm

VS.

  • Multicellular organisms with a saclike body plan have body walls that are only two cells thick, facilitating diffusion of materials
how do complex animals exchange resources and waste with their environment
How do complex animals exchange resources and waste with their environment?

Mouth

Gastrovascular

cavity

Exchange

Exchange

Exchange

0.1 mm

1 mm

(a) Single cell

(b) Two layers of cells

internal exchange surfaces of complex animals
Internal exchange surfaces of complex animals

d

o

o

l

B

External environment

CO2

O2

Food

Mouth

Animal

body

250 m

Respiratory

system

Lung tissue (SEM)

Heart

Cells

Digestive

system

Interstitial

fluid

Circulatory

system

Nutrients

Excretory

system

100 m

50 m

Lining of small

intestine (SEM)

Blood vessels in

kidney (SEM)

Anus

Unabsorbed

matter (feces)

Metabolic waste products

(nitrogenous waste)

slide13

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

  • In vertebrates, the space between cells is filled with interstitial fluid,which allows for the movement of material into and out of cells
    • Blood is contained within vessels
hierarchical organization of body plans

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Hierarchical Organization of Body Plans
  • Most animals are composed of specialized cells organized into tissues that have different functions
  • Tissues make up organs, which together make up organ systems
    • Some organs, such as the pancreas, belong to more than one organ system

Benefit of complex body plans:

helps an animal living in a variable environment to maintain a relatively stable internal environment

exploring structure and function in animal tissues

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Exploring Structure and Function in Animal Tissues
  • Tissues are classified into four main categories:
  • Epithelial
  • Connective
  • Muscle
  • Nervous
figure 40 5aa
Figure 40.5aa

1. Epithelial Tissue

Stratified squamous

epithelium

Pseudostratified

columnar

epithelium

Cuboidal

epithelium

Simple columnar

epithelium

Simple squamous

epithelium

figure 40 5ab
Figure 40.5ab

Apical surface

Basal surface

Basal lamina

40 m

Polarity of epithelia

2 connective tissue

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2. Connective Tissue
  • Connective tissue mainly binds and supports other tissues
  • Most diverse tissue type
    • It contains sparsely packed cells scattered throughout an extracellular matrix
    • The matrix consists of fibers in a liquid, jellylike, or solid foundation
slide21

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

  • There are three types of connective tissue fiber, all made of protein:
    • Collagenous fibers provide strength and flexibility
      • Found in: tendon, ligament, skin, cornea, cartilage, bone, blood vessels, gut, and intervertebral disc.
    • Elastic fibers stretch and snap back to their original length
      • Found in: extracellular matrix
    • Reticular fibers join connective tissue to adjacent tissues
      • Found in: liver, bone marrow, lymphatic organs
slide22

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

  • Connective tissue contains cells, including
    • Fibroblasts that secrete the protein of extracellular fibers
    • Macrophages that are involved in the immune system
figure 40 5ba
Figure 40.5ba

Connective Tissue

Loose connective tissue

Blood…why?

Collagenous fiber

Plasma

White

blood cells

55 m

120 m

Elastic fiber

Red blood cells

Cartilage

Fibrous connective tissue

Chondrocytes

100 m

30 m

Chondroitin sulfate

Nuclei

Bone

Adipose tissue

Central

canal

Fat droplets

700 m

150 m

Osteon

slide24

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

  • In vertebrates, the fibers and foundation combine to form six major types of connective tissue:
    • Loose connective tissue binds epithelia to underlying tissues and holds organs in place
    • Cartilage is a strong and flexible support material
    • Fibrous connective tissue is found in tendons,which attach muscles to bones, and ligaments,which connect bones at joints
slide25

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

  • Adipose tissue stores fat for insulation and fuel
  • Blood is composed of blood cells and cell fragments in blood plasma
  • Bone is mineralized and forms the skeleton
slide26

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

  • 3. Muscle Tissue comes in three types:
    • Skeletal muscle, or striated muscle, is responsible for voluntary movement
    • Smooth muscle is responsible for involuntary body activities
    • Cardiac muscle is responsible for contraction of the heart
figure 40 5ca
Figure 40.5ca

Muscle Tissue

Skeletal muscle

Nuclei

Muscle

fiber

Sarcomere

100 m

Smooth muscle

Cardiac muscle

Nucleus

Muscle fibers

Intercalated disk

Nucleus

50 m

25 m

4 nervous tissue

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

4. Nervous Tissue
  • Nervous tissue senses stimuli and transmits signals throughout the animal
  • Nervous tissue contains
    • Neurons, or nerve cells, that transmit nerve impulses
    • Glial cells, or glia, that help nourish, insulate, and replenish neurons
figure 40 5da
Figure 40.5da

Nervous Tissue

Neurons

Glia

15 m

Glia

Neuron:

Dendrites

Cell body

Axons of

neurons

Axon

Blood

vessel

40 m

(Fluorescent LM)

(Confocal LM)

slide30

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Control and coordination within a body depend on:

the endocrine system
The endocrine system
  • The endocrine system transmits chemical signals called hormones to receptive cells throughout the body via blood
    • A hormone may affect one or more regions throughout the body
    • Hormones are relatively slow acting, but can have long-lasting effects
slide33

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

The Nervous System

  • The nervous system transmits information between specific locations
  • The information conveyed depends on a signal’s pathway, not the type of signal
  • Nerve signal transmission is very fast
  • Nerve impulses can be received by neurons, muscle cells, endocrine cells, and exocrine cells
concept 40 2 feedback control maintains the internal environment in many animals

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Concept 40.2: Feedback control maintains the internal environment in many animals
  • Animals manage their internal environment by regulating or conforming to the external environment
regulating and conforming

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Regulating and Conforming
  • A regulator uses internal control mechanisms to moderate internal change in the face of external, environmental fluctuation
  • A conformer allows its internal condition to vary with certain external changes
  • Animals may regulate some environmental variables while conforming to others
homeostasis

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Homeostasis
  • Organisms use homeostasis to maintain a “steady state” or internal balance regardless of external environment
  • What is maintained at a constant level in humans?
slide38

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Animation: Negative Feedback Right-click slide / select “Play”

slide39

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Animation: Positive Feedback Right-click slide / select “Play”

slide42

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

  • Homeostasis can adjust to changes in external environment, a process called acclimatization:
    • What are some conditions to which we will acclimate?
concept 40 3 homeostatic processes for thermoregulation involve form function and behavior

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Concept 40.3: Homeostatic processes for thermoregulation involve form, function, and behavior
  • Thermoregulation is the process by which animals maintain an internal temperature within a tolerable range
endothermy and ectothermy

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Endothermy and Ectothermy
  • Endothermic animals generate heat by metabolism; birds and mammals are endotherms
  • Ectothermic animals gain heat from external sources; ectotherms include most invertebrates, fishes, amphibians, and nonavian reptiles
  • What are the pros and cons of each?
variation in body temperature

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Variation in Body Temperature
  • The body temperature of a poikilotherm varies with its environment
  • The body temperature of a homeotherm is relatively constant
  • The relationship between heat source and body temperature is not fixed (that is, not all poikilotherms are ectotherms)
slide48

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

  • Heat regulation in mammals often involves the integumentary system: skin, hair, and nails
  • Five adaptations help animals thermoregulate:
    • Insulation
    • Circulatory adaptations
    • Cooling by evaporative heat loss
    • Behavioral responses
    • Adjusting metabolic heat production
circulatory adaptations

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Circulatory Adaptations
  • Regulation of blood flow near the body surface significantly affects thermoregulation
  • Many endotherms and some ectotherms can alter the amount of blood flowing between the body core and the skin
    • In vasodilation, blood flow in the skin increases, facilitating heat loss
    • In vasoconstriction, blood flow in the skin decreases, lowering heat loss
slide50
Countercurrent heat exchangers transfer heat between fluids flowing in opposite directions and reduce heat loss
adjusting metabolic heat production

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Adjusting Metabolic Heat Production
  • Thermogenesis is the adjustment of metabolic heat production to maintain body temperature
    • Thermogenesis is increased by muscle activity such as moving or shivering
    • Nonshivering thermogenesis takes place when hormones cause mitochondria to increase their metabolic activity
    • Some ectotherms can also shiver to increase body temperature
acclimatization in thermoregulation

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Acclimatization in Thermoregulation
  • Birds and mammals can vary their insulation to acclimatize to seasonal temperature changes
  • When temperatures are subzero, some ectotherms produce “antifreeze” compounds to prevent ice formation in their cells
concept 40 4 energy requirements are related to animal size activity and environment

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Concept 40.4: Energy requirements are related to animal size, activity, and environment
  • Bioenergetics is the overall flow and transformation of energy in an animal

Energy Allocation and Use

  • Energy-containing molecules from food are usually used to make ATP, which powers cellular work
  • After the needs of staying alive are met, remaining food molecules can be used in biosynthesis
  • Biosynthesis includes body growth and repair, synthesis of storage material such as fat, and production of gametes
quantifying energy use

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Quantifying Energy Use
  • Metabolic rate is the amount of energy an animal uses in a unit of time
  • Metabolic rate can be determined by
    • An animal’s heat loss
    • The amount of oxygen consumed or carbon dioxide produced
    • How does the average human evaluate their metabolism?
      • Why is this potentially inaccurate?
minimum metabolic rate and thermoregulation

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Minimum Metabolic Rate and Thermoregulation
  • Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the metabolic rate of an endotherm at rest at a “comfortable” temperature
  • Standard metabolic rate (SMR) is the metabolic rate of an ectotherm at rest at a specific temperature
  • Both rates assume a nongrowing, fasting, and nonstressed animal
  • Ectotherms have much lower metabolic rates than endotherms of a comparable size
influences on metabolic rate

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Influences on Metabolic Rate
  • Metabolic rates are affected by many factors besides whether an animal is an endotherm or ectotherm
  • Two of these factors are size and activity
size and metabolic rate

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Size and Metabolic Rate
  • Metabolic rate is proportional to body mass to the power of three quarters (m3/4)
  • Smaller animals have higher metabolic rates per gram than larger animals
  • The higher metabolic rate of smaller animals leads to a higher oxygen delivery rate, breathing rate, heart rate, and greater (relative) blood volume, compared with a larger animal
torpor and energy conservation

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Torpor and Energy Conservation
  • Torpor is a physiological state in which activity is low and metabolism decreases
  • What would motivate an animals to go into a state of torpor?
slide67

Levels of two transcripts in an attempt to determine whether the circadian rhythm continues to run during hibernation. What conclusions can be made?

slide68

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

  • Long-term torpor is called hibernation
  • Summer torpor, called estivation, enables animals to survive long periods of high temperatures and scarce water
  • Daily torporis exhibited by many small mammals and birds and seems adapted to feeding patterns
testing your understanding of the big picture
Testing your understanding of the big picture

Draw a model of the control circuit(s) required for driving an automobile at a fairly constant speed over a hilly road, or for a human controlling temperature within their body. Indicate each feature that represents a sensor, stimulus, or response.