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Chapter 20: Unifying Concepts of Animal Structure and Function PowerPoint Presentation
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Chapter 20: Unifying Concepts of Animal Structure and Function

Chapter 20: Unifying Concepts of Animal Structure and Function

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Chapter 20: Unifying Concepts of Animal Structure and Function

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  1. Chapter 20: Unifying Concepts of Animal Structure and Function NEW AIM: How are animals organized? Animal form and function (anatomy and physiology) Anatomy - Structure of the organism Physiology - Function of the organism Structure determines Function

  2. Chapter 20: Unifying Concepts of Animal Structure and Function NEW AIM: How are animals organized? Anatomy and Physiology Exchange with the environment

  3. Chapter 20: Unifying Concepts of Animal Structure and Function NEW AIM: How are animals organized? Anatomy and Physiology Exchange with the environment

  4. Chapter 20: Unifying Concepts of Animal Structure and Function NEW AIM: How are animals organized? Anatomy and Physiology Fig. 20.1

  5. Chapter 20: Unifying Concepts of Animal Structure and Function AIM: How are animals organized? Anatomy and Physiology Tissue - cooperative unit of cells with similar structure and function Fig. 20.2

  6. Chapter 20: Unifying Concepts of Animal Structure and Function AIM: How are animals organized? Anatomy and Physiology Tissue There are only 4 major types in animals: Fig. 20.2

  7. Chapter 20: Unifying Concepts of Animal Structure and Function AIM: How are animals organized? Anatomy and Physiology Tissue There are only 4 major types in animals: 1. Epithelial tissue - Covers outside of body and lines the organs and cavities within the body like the GI tract, bladder, lungs, etc… Fig. 20.4 - Cells packed side by side and typically function as barrier against mechanical injury, pathogens and other microbes, fluid loss.

  8. Chapter 20: Unifying Concepts of Animal Structure and Function AIM: How are animals organized? Anatomy and Physiology Tissue There are only 4 major types in animals: 1. Epithelial tissue Two criteria for identifying type of epithelia: 1. Is it… “Simple” = single layer of cells or Fig. 20.4 “stratified” = many layer of cells

  9. Chapter 20: Unifying Concepts of Animal Structure and Function AIM: How are animals organized? Anatomy and Physiology Tissue There are only 4 major types in animals: 1. Epithelial tissue Two criteria for identifying type of epithelia: 2. Is it (shape)… “cuboidal” = cube-shaped “columnar” = column shaped like bricks Fig. 20.4 or “squamous” = flat like floor tiles

  10. Chapter 20: Unifying Concepts of Animal Structure and Function AIM: How are animals organized? Anatomy and Physiology Tissue There are only 4 major types in animals: 1. Epithelial tissue Structure / Function Fig. 20.4

  11. Chapter 20: Unifying Concepts of Animal Structure and Function AIM: How are animals organized? Tissue There are only 4 major types in animals: 1. Epithelial tissue Simple columnar - Covers outside of body and lines the organs and cavities within the body like the GI tract Simple cuboidal

  12. Chapter 20: Unifying Concepts of Animal Structure and Function AIM: How are animals organized? Tissue : 4 major types in animals 1. Epithelial tissue 2. Connective tissue - Serves to bind and support other tissue Fig. 20.5 - Cells are sparse and scattered through an ECM like raisons in bread - Cells produce ECM (raisons make the bread)

  13. Chapter 20: Unifying Concepts of Animal Structure and Function AIM: How are animals organized? Tissue : 4 major types in animals 1. Epithelial tissue 2. Connective tissue - Cells are sparse and scattered through an ECM like raisons in bread - Cells produce ECM (raisons make the bread)

  14. Chapter 20: Unifying Concepts of Animal Structure and Function AIM: How are animals organized? Tissue : 4 major types in animals 1. Epithelial tissue 2. Connective tissue 3. Muscle tissue - Cable of contraction – usually when stimulated by a nerve signal Fig. 20.6 -made up of muscle fibers (cells) - most abundant tissue type in animals

  15. Chapter 20: Unifying Concepts of Animal Structure and Function AIM: How are animals organized? Tissue : 4 major types in animals 1. Epithelial tissue 2. Connective tissue 3. Muscle tissue Three types: 1. Skeletal 2. Smooth 3. Cardiac skeletal cardiac smooth -made up of muscle fibers (cells) - most abundant tissue type in animals

  16. Chapter 20: Unifying Concepts of Animal Structure and Function AIM: How are animals organized? Tissue : 4 major types in animals 1. Epithelial tissue 2. Connective tissue 3. Muscle tissue 4. Nervous tissue Fig. 20.7 - neuron = a single nerve cell (a single wire) - forms a rapid communication system - senses stimuli, processes and directs response

  17. Chapter 20: Unifying Concepts of Animal Structure and Function AIM: How are animals organized? Several tissues are organized to form an organ: Fig. 20.8

  18. Chapter 20: Unifying Concepts of Animal Structure and Function AIM: How are animals organized? Several tissues are organized to form an organ:

  19. Chapter 20: Unifying Concepts of Animal Structure and Function AIM: How are animals organized? Organs cooperate to build organ systems: Organ systems cooperate to complete the body… Fig. 20.9

  20. Chapter 20: Unifying Concepts of Animal Structure and Function AIM: How are animals organized? Organs cooperate to build organ systems: Function is to bring in chemicals (nutrients: monomers, fatty acids, glycerol, cholesterol, vitamins [used as coenzymes – organic cofactors], minerals [ions to be used as cofactors, neuron firing, etc…]) to your cells for building (biosynthesis), storing, or burning to generate ATP for building. Fig. 20.9

  21. Chapter 20: Unifying Concepts of Animal Structure and Function AIM: How are animals organized? Organs cooperate to build organ systems: Serves for gas exchange. Bring in molecular oxygen (O2) to your blood, which will be used to perform cell respiration by your cells. To get rid of (excrete) CO2 and H2O waste coming from cell respiration (CO2 released during grooming and Krebs, H2O formed at the end of the ETC from the reduction of O2). Fig. 20.9

  22. Chapter 20: Unifying Concepts of Animal Structure and Function AIM: How are animals organized? Organs cooperate to build organ systems: The heart pumps blood around your body in hollow tubes made of cell called arteries, veins, and capillaries (these would be the roadways of your body). EVERY cell is at most three cell lengths away from a capillary (from the blood supply). The system delivers nutrients and oxygen to all cells for building, burning or storing, and takes away the waste products that cells excrete like CO2 and urea (nitrogen waste from the deamination of amino acids). CO2 will be eliminated by the lungs (resp./excretory system) and the urea will be eliminated by the kidneys (excretory system). The blood also carries other substance like white blood cells (WBC’s). Fig. 20.9

  23. Chapter 20: Unifying Concepts of Animal Structure and Function AIM: How are animals organized? Organs cooperate to build organ systems: Cleans the blood of metabolic waste (waste from chemical reactions) like H2O from cell respiration, and urea from deamination. The kidney are “blood filters”, removing urea, excess salt or excess water and other undesirable chemicals from the blood. Although not shown, the respiratory system has excretory function in the elimination of CO2 since it is a gas along with the skin, which will release some urea, salt and water as sweat. Fig. 20.9

  24. Chapter 20: Unifying Concepts of Animal Structure and Function AIM: How are animals organized? Organs cooperate to build organ systems: CELLS TALK… Your cells must be able to talk to each other. For example, growth hormone coming from the pituitary gland in the brain instructs cells to undergo mitosis (bypass the G1 checkpoint) or insulin from the pancreas instructing the liver to take up glucose from the blood. What you must realize, however, is that no one cell knows what all other cells are doing. They are mechanical and respond to internal and external signals. It is analogous to our society. There is no one person that knows what all people are doing. I communicate with certain people and they communicate with others etc… and in the end all people are connected/networked. Fig. 20.9

  25. Chapter 20: Unifying Concepts of Animal Structure and Function AIM: How are animals organized? Organs cooperate to build organ systems: Your cells must be able to talk to each other. For example, growth hormone coming from the pituitary gland in the brain instructs cells to undergo mitosis (bypass the G1 checkpoint) or insulin from the pancreas instructing the liver to take up glucose from the blood. The endocrine system uses hormones (chemicals: steroids, amino acids, polypeptides, proteins) put into the bloodby endocrine cells, which bind to and signal others cells to perform certain functions. This system is typically slow and long term – takes a while for the hormones to circulate and they will stay around a while… Fig. 20.9

  26. Chapter 20: Unifying Concepts of Animal Structure and Function AIM: How are animals organized? Organs cooperate to build organ systems: The nervous system is also all about cellular communication, but instead of using chemicals released into the blood, it uses cells that act like wires called neurons that transmit electrical signals. These signals are extremely fast (up to 120 m/s) and are typically short lived. An example would be moving your finger or any other skeletal muscle. The electrical signal is sent from your brain, down your spinal cord and out to the muscle in your finger. Fig. 20.9

  27. Chapter 20: Unifying Concepts of Animal Structure and Function AIM: How are animals organized? Organs cooperate to build organ systems: There are millions upon millions of bacteria, fungi, parasitic worms, etc… that would love nothing than to take your organic molecules and make them lunch. Luckily you have an immune and lymphatic system. These systems work together to clear your body of foreign substance. White blood cells are responsible for the destruction of these substances. They, like all blood cells, are born in the bone marrow and serve to protect… Fig. 20.9

  28. Chapter 20: Unifying Concepts of Animal Structure and Function AIM: How are animals organized? Organs cooperate to build organ systems: What is life without a reproductive system? Nonexistent. This one if fairly self-explanatory. It is also the only system not required for the organism itself to survive. Fig. 20.9

  29. Chapter 20: Unifying Concepts of Animal Structure and Function AIM: How are animals organized? Organs cooperate to build organ systems: The muscular system is composed of all the skeletal muscles of the body. The skeletal muscles allow the body to move when combined with signals from the nervous system (and a lot of ATP of course) Fig. 20.9

  30. Chapter 20: Unifying Concepts of Animal Structure and Function AIM: How are animals organized? Organs cooperate to build organ systems: The skeletal system serves to support the body (without it you would be a blob on the floor), protects vital organs like your lungs, brain, spinal cord and heart, and contains marrow that produces blood cells. The integumentary system is composed of the skin, hair and nails (feathers and scales), all of which are mostly non-living. This system serves to waterproof, cushion and protect the deeper tissues, excrete wastes, regulate temperature, is the attachment site for sensory receptors to detect pain, sensation, pressure and temperature, and may attract a mate. In humans the integumentary system additionally provides vitamin D synthesis. Integere means “to cover” (latin) Fig. 20.9

  31. Chapter 20: Unifying Concepts of Animal Structure and Function AIM: How are animals organized? Organs cooperate to build organ systems: Organ systems cooperate to complete the body… Fig. 20.9

  32. Chapter 21: Nutrition and Digestion NEW AIM: How do animals obtain nutrition? Nutrition and The Digestive System

  33. Chapter 21: Nutrition and Digestion NEW AIM: How do animals obtain nutrition? Four Types of ANIMAL ingestion: 1. Filter (suspension) feeder 2. Substrate Feeder 3. Fluid Feeder 4. Bulk Feeder

  34. Chapter 21: Nutrition and Digestion AIM: How do animals obtain nutrition?

  35. Chapter 21: Nutrition and Digestion AIM: How do animals obtain nutrition?

  36. Chapter 21: Nutrition and Digestion AIM: How do animals obtain nutrition? macromolecules too large to cross plasma membrane REASONS: animals need monomers to make their polymers

  37. Chapter 21: Nutrition and Digestion AIM: How do animals obtain nutrition? What will the nutrients be used for?

  38. Chapter 21: Nutrition and Digestion AIM: How do animals obtain nutrition? (EGESTION)

  39. Chapter 21: Nutrition and Digestion AIM: How do animals obtain nutrition? Let’s now look at organisms form simple to more complex and see how they perform nutrition.

  40. Chapter 21: Nutrition and Digestion AIM: How do animals obtain nutrition? Digestion must be contained in specialized compartments: Single celled organisms: A. Phagocytose and fuse lysosomes with the resulting food vacuole 1. Digestion occurs in individual cells.

  41. Chapter 21: Nutrition and Digestion AIM: How do animals obtain nutrition? Digestion must be contained in specialized compartments: Sponges Phylum: Porifera 1. Digestion occurs in individual cells – can only eat detritus.

  42. Chapter 21: Nutrition and Digestion AIM: How do animals obtain nutrition? Digestion must be contained in specialized compartments: Fig. 21.3A Hydra: Phylum: Cnidaria (Coelentrates) 2. Gastrovascular cavity – allows organism to eat larger pieces of food - Digestion (gastro) and circulation (vascular) of nutrients to body; only one opening - Cells lining GV cavity secrete hydrolytic enzyme onto the ingested food to chemically break it down (food its trapped in the cavity and circulated by flagella) and then phagocytose the remaining pieces to be further broken down by lysosomes.

  43. Chapter 21: Nutrition and Digestion AIM: How do animals obtain nutrition? Cnidarians Cnidocytes (stinger cells) Chironex fleckeri (“Box jellyfish”) - cell after which the phylum is named - found on surface of tentacles - each cell contains a coiled thread with a capsule (nematocyst) - when triggered, coil shoots out and wraps around/stings prey

  44. Chapter 21: Nutrition and Digestion AIM: How do animals obtain nutrition? Platyhelminthes also uses a GV cavity

  45. Chapter 21: Nutrition and Digestion AIM: How do animals obtain nutrition? SYMMETRY No symmetry Central axis where several cuts can be made through axis to make many equal pieces (like a pizza pie). Only one plane can be cut to divide the organism into two equal halves.

  46. Chapter 21: Nutrition and Digestion AIM: How do animals obtain nutrition? Fig. 21.3B 3. Alimentary canal (AC) - A tube beginning with the mouth and ending with the anus having specializations along the way for ingestion, digestion, absorption and egestion. - All the remaining phyla (nematode to chordata) use an AC

  47. Chapter 21: Nutrition and Digestion AIM: How do animals obtain nutrition? 3. Alimentary canal (AC) Phylum: Annelida Fig. 21.3B 1. Substrate feeders taking in soil through the mouth 2. Soil enters pharynx (throat) and then passes down the esophagus to the crop. 3. The crop is an organ that moistens and stores food as the organism can eat soil quicker than it can digest and absorb the organic material.

  48. Chapter 21: Nutrition and Digestion AIM: How do animals obtain nutrition? 3. Alimentary canal (AC) Phylum: Annelida Fig. 21.3B 4. The crop will slowly release food into the gizzard, which contains a bit of sand and serves to grind the food (mechanical digestion) like we do in our mouth to increase surface area for the upcoming chemical digestion. 5. The pulverized material then enters the intestines where enzymes will be secreted into the canal to chemically breakdown the food (hydrolysis of polymers).

  49. Chapter 21: Nutrition and Digestion AIM: How do animals obtain nutrition? 3. Alimentary canal (AC) Phylum: Annelida Fig. 21.3B 6. The intestines is also the site of absorption of monomers into the blood. 7. The undigested material is egested through the anus.

  50. Chapter 21: Nutrition and Digestion AIM: How do animals obtain nutrition? 3. Alimentary canal (AC) Phylum: Arthropoda 1. Similar to Annelids 2. Bulk feeder, food ingested through mouth, passes down esophagus into a crop and then into a gizzard. 3. The gizzard of insects can have hard teeth-like appendages for grinding the food.