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  1. E_English Grammar Course Unit 2 NOUN PHRASE

  2. Issues 1. Noun and noun classes 2. Reference and the articles 3. Grammatical categories of nouns 4. Pronouns

  3. Issues 1. Noun and noun classes 2. Reference and the articles 3. Grammatical categories of nouns 4. Pronouns

  4. 1/1 Noun – Noun classes 1.1 • = a word used TO NAME … • A person • (E.g.: Tom, John, Bill Jones) • A thing • (E.g.: bed, chair, table, house) • An animal • (E.g.: cat, dog, tiger, lion) • An abstract concept • (E.g.: peace, war, independence) Noun

  5. 1/2 Noun – Noun classes 1.2 Noun classes Proper nouns Common nouns

  6. 1/3 Noun – Noun classes 1.2 Noun classes Proper nouns Bill Clinton personal names the Nile geographical names calendar items Easter names of institutions/ organizations the UNICEF

  7. Noun classes Common nouns Count Ns Non-count Ns car Singular Singular cars Plural salt 1/4 Noun – Noun classes 1.2

  8. Common nouns Count Ns Non-count Ns Concrete Abstract beauty gold chair activity 1/5 Noun – Noun classes 1.2

  9. 1/6 Noun – Noun classes 1.2 Noun classes Proper nouns Common nouns E.g. Tom, John Count Ns Non-count Ns Concrete Abstract cat failure rice peace

  10. Let’s check To which classes does each of the following nouns belong to? Furniture Garden Victory Serenity Friday 1/7 Noun – Noun classes 1.2

  11. 1/8 Noun – Noun classes 1.2 • Let’s check • Furniture: Non-count, concrete • Garden: Count, concrete • Serenity: Non-count, abstract • Friday: Proper (calendar item) • Victory: Count, abstract

  12. Issues 1. Noun and noun classes 2. Reference and the articles 3. Grammatical categories of nouns 4. Pronouns

  13. Reference Generic Unique Specific 2/1 Reference – The articles 2.1

  14. Reference proper noun Unique 2/2 Reference – The articles 2.1 E.g.: - John loves Mary.

  15. Reference Generic Specific vs. 2/3 Reference – The articles 2.1 C/f. (1) A lion and two tigers are sleeping in the cage. (2) Tigers are dangerous animals.

  16. 2/4 Reference – The articles 2.1 • Specific or generic? (1) A lion and two tigers are sleeping in the cage. (2) Tigers are dangerous animals. • (1) = SPECIFIC (referring to particular specimens of the class ‘tiger’. • (2) = GENERIC (referring to the class ‘tiger’ without specific reference to particular tigers)

  17. 2/5 Reference – The articles 2.1 Generic Reference & the Articles • A German is a good musician. • Germans are good musicians. • The Germans are good musicians. • The German is a good musician (not common).

  18. DEFINITE INDEFINITE 2/6 Reference – The articles 2.1 Specific Reference & the Articles

  19. 2/7 Reference – The articles 2.2 The articles Definite Zero (Ø) Indefinite E.g.: - The earth goes around the sun. (definite) - He bought a new bike yesterday. (indefinite) - He has just arrived in Ø London. (zero)

  20. Cataphoric reference Immediate situation Larger situation Sporadic reference Anaphoric reference Logical use of THE With body parts 2/8 Reference – The articles 2.2 Definite article ‘the”

  21. 2/9 Reference – The articles 2.2 Definite article ‘the’ Anaphoric reference Cataphoric reference Sporadic reference = the uniqueness of reference of some phrase (the X) is supplied by information given earlier in the discourse The modification of the noun phrase restricts the reference of the noun E.g. The wine that France produces Reference is made to an institution which may be observed recurrently at various places and times. E.g. the theatre, the cinema, the press, etc.

  22. Definite article ‘the’ Anaphoric reference Direct 2/10 Reference – The articles 2.2 = The same head noun has occurred in the text and a relation of co-reference exists between two NPs E.g.: Susan bought a TV and a video recorder, but she returnedthe video recorder because it was defective.

  23. Definite article ‘the’ Anaphoric reference Indirect 2/11 Reference – The articles 2.2 = A reference becomes part of the hearer’s knowledge indirectly E.g.: John bought a new bicycle, but found that one of the wheels was defective.

  24. 2/12 Reference – The articles 2.2 The articles = derived from the extra-linguistic situation. Definite Immediate situation E.g.: - The roses are beautiful. (said in the garden) - Have you fed the dog? (said in the domestic context)

  25. 2/13 Reference – The articles 2.2 The articles = general knowledge which is shared or worldwide Definite Larger situation E.g.: the sun the Equator the Republic the North Pole the cosmos the Renaissance

  26. 2/14 Reference – The articles 2.2 The articles = the unique reference explained by the logical interpretation of certain words as post-determiners and adjectives Definite Logical use of THE

  27. 2/15 Reference – The articles 2.2 The articles • Ordinals • (E.g.: first, second) • General ordinals • (E.g.: next, last, only) • Superlative Adjs • (E.g.: best, largest) Definite Logical use of THE E.g.: - When is the first flight to Chicago? - This is the only remaining copy. - Of the three newspapers we have in this city, this is the best.

  28. 2/16 Reference – The articles 2.2 The articles • = when the possessor… • is subject (1) • may be implied rather • than stated (2) • is relevant or clear (3) With body parts Definite E.g.: - My mother complains of a pain in the neck. (1) - The doctor diagnosed a fracture of the collarbone. (2) - Keep the back straight when serving and your tennis will be better. (3)

  29. 2/17 Reference – The articles 2.2 Indefinite articles a/an The referent: not mentioned before, and assumedly unfamiliar to the speaker or hearer. C/f: (1) A house on the corner is for sale. (2) The house on the corner is for sale.

  30. Indefinite articles a/an Non-referring uses Substitution uses for ONE 2/18 Reference – The articles 2.2

  31. 2/19 Reference – The articles 2.2 Indefinite articles a/an = with complement function, and a descriptive role rather than a referring role Non-referring uses E.g.: - What a miserable day it is! = sometimes not referring to anything in reality E.g.: - Bob wants to marry a princess who speaks five languages.

  32. Substitution uses for ONE numerical or quantifying function substitute and generic function 2/19 Reference – The articles 2.2 Indefinite articles a/an

  33. 2/20 Reference – The articles 2.2 Indefinite articles a/an Substitution uses for ONE numerical or quantifying function In expression: a dozen, a hundred… In quantifiers: a few, a great many… In measure phrase: ten dollars a day…

  34. 2/21 Reference – The articles 2.2 Indefinite articles a/an Substitution uses for ONE substitute and generic function = any representative of the class E.g.:- A woman needs love and support from a man.

  35. 2/22 Reference – The articles 2.2 Zero (Ø) article Noun phrases in a copular relation Noun phrases with sporadic reference Parallel structures Fixed phrases

  36. 2/23 Reference – The articles 2.2 Zero (Ø) article Noun phrases in a copular relation E.g.: - John F. Kennedy was (the) President of the United States in 1961. = where the complement means a unique role or task = When the appositional N.P indicating a unique role or task is placed first E.g.: - Chelsea centre-forward Milton Smith = When the complement of turn is used (even when there is no implication of uniqueness) E.g.: - Jenny started out as a music student before she turned linguist.

  37. Seasons Times of day and night Institutions Means of transport and communication Meals Illnesses 2/24 Reference – The articles 2.2 Zero (Ø) article Noun phrases with sporadic reference

  38. 2/25 Reference – The articles 2.2 Zero (Ø) article Noun phrases with sporadic reference = nouns do not refer to actual buildings or places, but to institutions associated with them Institutions E.g.: - “to be in prison” means to be a prisoner

  39. 2/26 Reference – The articles 2.2 Zero (Ø) article Noun phrases with sporadic reference Means of transportation

  40. 2/27 Reference – The articles 2.2 Zero (Ø) article Noun phrases with sporadic reference = take a zero article particularly after at, by, after and before Times of day and night E.g.: at/ before dawn by day and night when day breaks after nightfall

  41. 2/28 Reference – The articles 2.2 Zero (Ø) article Noun phrases with sporadic reference = as an institution recurring day by day (for specific meals: THE/ A(N)) Meals E.g.: - She’s having lunch with her client. - That day, the lunch was served on the terrace.

  42. 2/29 Reference – The articles 2.2 Zero (Ø) article Noun phrases with sporadic reference = as seasons generally, or a particular part of a particular year (for a particular season: THE/ A(N)) Seasons E.g.: - Winter is coming. - The spring of last year was cold.

  43. 2/30 Reference – The articles 2.2 Zero (Ø) article Noun phrases with sporadic reference Note: for well-known infectious diseases such as: THE/ A(N) Illnesses E.g.: diabetes influenza pneumonia (the) flu (the mumps) (the) meals a fever a temperature a cold

  44. 2/31 Reference – The articles 2.2 Zero (Ø) article Parallel structures the same noun repeated after a preposition one noun balanced against another noun of contrasting meaning E.g.: day by day eye to eye E.g.: from father to son husband and wife

  45. 2/32 Reference – The articles 2.2 Zero (Ø) article Fixed phrases Idioms = nouns with prepositions before/after Idioms = verbs with nouns and prepositions E.g.: in turn on foot E.g.: set fire to get word of

  46. Issues 1. Noun and noun classes 2. Reference and the articles 3. Grammatical categories of nouns 4. Pronouns

  47. 2/33 Grammatical categories of Ns 3 Grammatical Categories Number Case Gender E.g.: mouse - mice box – boxes fish - fish E.g.: she-wolf desk mother-in-law E.g.: my sister’s car a fall of 10%

  48. 2/34 Grammatical categories of Ns 3 Grammatical Categories Number Invariables = nouns that do not vary Variables = nouns that do vary

  49. 2/35 Grammatical categories of Ns 3

  50. 2/36 Grammatical categories of Ns 3