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Grammar

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  1. Grammar Noun Clauses

  2. Subject Object Predicative Appositive Noun Clauses Clause

  3. 1.You knowthat I am a teacher of English. 2. That I am a teacher of English is known to you all . 3. It is known to you all that I am a teacher of English. 4. The fact that I am a teacher of English is known to you all. 5. I am worried about whether you can do well in the exam. 6. What I am worried about is whether you can do well in the exam. Find the clauses and tell the function of them: that I am a teacher of English Object Clause That I am a teacher of English Subject Clause that I am a teacher of English Subject Clause that I am a teacher of English Appositive Clause whether you can do well in the exam. Object Clause whether you can do well in the exam. What I am worried about Subject Clause Predicative Clause

  4. The Subject Clause: 1.Whether it is true remains a problem. 2.That she was chosen made us very happy. 3.What I can do is to tell you the truth. 4.How the book will sell depends on its author. 5.Whoever told you that was lying. 6.It was obvious that the driver couldn’t control his car. Questions: 1.Can we use “if” instead of “whether”? 2. What’s the difference between “that” and “what”? 3.When the Subject Clause is too long, what should we do? 4.Can the conjunction “that” be left out in the Subject Clause?

  5. The Object Clause: 1.They thought that the question was too difficult. 2.I’m certain that he will get there in time. 3.She has made it clear that she does an important job. 4. I’ll do whatever you ask me to. 5.Do you know whether he’ll come or not? 6. Do you know if/whether any decision has been arrived at? Questions: 1. Can the conjunction “that” be left out in the Object Clause? 2.Can we use “if” instead of “whether” in the fifth sentence?

  6. The Predicative Clause: 1.It looks as if it were going to rain. 2.That is why he failed the exam. 3. Lishui is not what it used to be. 4. The reason for his absence was that he was ill. 5. What she wants to know is which book she should buy. 6. The question is whether we should accept his invitation. 1. Can we use “because” in place of “that” in the fourth sentence 2. Can we use “if” instead of “whether” in the sixth sentence

  7. The Appositive Clause: 1.I have no idea when he will arrive. 2.Word has come from the capital that President Hu Jingtao will come to visit our school . 3.The suggestion that we should follow his advice was accepted at last. Besides “idea, word,suggestion”, can you list more words? The news which they had won the game soon spread over the whole school.

  8. Identify the type of clause in the following sentences The news that our football team won excited us. The news that we got excited us. that our football team won excited us. Appositive Clause that we got Attributive Clause “that” 在同位语从句中不充当任何成分,只起连接作用,一般不可省略。 在定语从句中充当主语或宾语,做宾语时可以省略。

  9. Conjunctions of Noun Clauses: that, whether, if, as if(as though) what, whatever, who, whoever, whom, whose, which (主语、宾语) when, where, how, why (状语)

  10. Tell whether the following clauses are right: 1.That she wants to know is which dress she should buy. 2.He will give up his job surprises all of us. 3. No matter who breaks the law will be punished. 4.If the meeting will be held in our school is not known yet. 5.He is said that he has accepted the invitation. What … That … Whoever… Whether… It…

  11. Tell whether the following clauses are right: 6.The reason why he was late was because his bike broke down halfway. 7.I don’t doubt whether/if he will come soon. 8. He told me the news which was very exciting. 9.After that seemed a long time, he came back to life. 10.He told me the news if our team won the match. that… that … √ what… that…

  12. Choose the best answers: • 1. [1989] These photographs will show you . • A. what does our village look like • B. what our village looks like • C. how does our village look like • D. how our village looks like • 2. [1992]Word has come some American • guests will come for a visit to our school next week. • what B. that C. whether D. when • 3. [2004全国卷I] I like ____ in the autumn when the weather is clear and bright. • A. this B. that C. it D. one

  13. 4. [1995] is a fact that English is being • accepted as an international language • A.There B. This C. That D. It • 5. [1996] we can’t get seems better • than we have. • 6. [1999]— I drove to Zhuhai for the air show last week. • — Is that you had a few days off? • A. why B. when C. what D. where • 7. [04湖南卷]I think Father would like to know_____I’ve • been up to so far, so I decide to send him a quick note. • A. which B. why C. what D. how • What , what B. What, that • C. That ,that D. That , what

  14. 8.[2001] A computer can only do _____ you have instructed it to do. • A. how B. after C. what D. when • 9.[2004全国卷I]You are saying that everyone should be equal, and this is ______ I disagree. • 10. [2005浙江卷]Danby left word with my secretary ______ he would call again in the afternoon. • A. who B. that C. as D. which • 11. [04天津卷]A modern city has been set up in_____ was • a wasteland ten years ago. • A. what B. which C. that D. where • 12. [04上海卷] After Yang Liwei succeeded in circling the earth,_____our astronauts desire to do is walk in space. • A. where B. what C. that D. how • why B. where C. what D. how

  15. Complete the following sentences: 1._____________________(毫无疑问)the prices of cars will go down. 2.The idea______________________________________ (电脑能识别人的声音) surprises many people. 3.I have no idea ______________________ (该选哪一个). 4.The problem_____________________________ (我们是否做这个实验)has been solved. 5.The question___________________(谁将出国) needs considering. There is no doubt that that computers can recognize human voices which one I should choose whether we will do the experiment who will go abroad

  16. Complete the following sentences(page 119): S1:Professor, I want to know (50年后我们的日常生活会是什么样) S2:Dr Smart, my question is (全球变暖对地球会有什么影响). S3:Professor, can you predict (污染能否被制止住) S4:Dr Smart,I want to know (将来我们会不会有足够的食物供养不断增长的人口) what our daily life will belike after 50 years. what effects global warming will have on us. whether pollution will ever be stopped? whether we will have enough food to feed the growing population.

  17. Complete the following sentences(page 119): S5:Professor Smart, my question is (太空航行什么时候能变得既简便又便宜) S6: Professor, who will win the debate on (是否应该允许克隆人类) S7: Dr Smart, I would like to know (会不会有更多无法治愈的疾病) S8: Professor, what is your prediction about (地球什么时候死亡) when space travel will become easy and inexpensive. whether human cloning should be allowed? whether there will be more incurable diseases. when the earth will die?

  18. Practice2:Join two sentences into an Appositive Clause. 1.The fact that two thirds of all girls in Britain are on a diet worries their parents and teachers a lot. 2.We heard the news last night that the British Prime Minister was on a three-day visit in China. 3. The view that teenagers shouldn’t spend too much time online is shared by many British parents. 4. There is no scientific proof for the idea that mobile phones stop teenagers from spending money on dresses on cigarettes. 5. The suggestion that Chinese students should be given more free time to themselves is welcomed by many people, especially kids in school.

  19. Language Revision be made up of make full use of have an effect on be valuable be based on consist of make the most of have an influence on be of great value on the basis of

  20. Making sentences according to the situation: Your class has 9 girls and 48 boys. (consist of) The class only lasts 40 minutes (make the most of) You talked with him and was inspired. ( have an influence on) The advice she gave you on learning was important. (be of+n) The TV play is about wars. (on the basis of)

  21. Sentences analysis The idea that England stands for Fish &Chips, Speakers’ Corner and the Tower of London is past. Appositive Clause The fact that Great Britain is made up of three countries is still unknown to many.

  22. The result of so much French influence was that the English language ended up with many French words such as table… Predicative Clause Subject Clause That most of these are now threatened and may disappear is a serious matter to the people in Britain.

  23. They realise that it is of great value to record and teach them to the younger generation. Object Clause Some people feelthat Wales is an ancient fairy land.

  24. Practice 1: The news that the plane would take off on time made everybody happy. The news that is spreading around the airport is that a heavy storm is coming. that the plane would take off on time Appositive Clause Attributive Clause that is spreading around the airport that a heavy storm is coming. Predicative Clause

  25. The suggestion that students should learn something practical is worth considering. The suggestion that they are considering is that students should learn something practical. that students should learn something practical Appositive Clause Attributive Clause that they are considering that students should learn something practical. Predicative Clause

  26. 1.John saidthat he was leaving for London on Wednesday. 2. It is very important that we learn English well . 3. The problem isthat he often tells lies. 4. I will tell her as soon as she comes. 5. The birthday present that he gave me was a car. 6. That the 2008 Olympic Games will be held in Beijing is known to all. Can you tell the function of the following clauses: that he was leaving for London on Wednesday. Object Clause that we learn English well Subject Clause that he often tells lies. Predicative Clause as soon as she comes. Adverbial Clause that he gave me Attributive Clause That the 2008 Olympic Games will be held in Beijing Subject Clause

  27. 定语从句

  28. 一、引导定语从句的关系词 指代人 who,whom,that 指代事物 which,that 所属关系 whose,of which 指地点 where 指时间 when 指原因 why

  29. 二、关系代词that和which在很多情况下可以互换,但下列情况只用that。二、关系代词that和which在很多情况下可以互换,但下列情况只用that。 All ______ can be done has been done. Do you have anything ________ you don’t understand ? There is little _______ can be believed about it . The book doesn’t say much ________ amuses children. that that that that 先行词是all ,everything,nothing,anything,something,much,little,none等不定代词,引导定语从句用that 。(something有时可用 which)

  30. Hamburg is the most beautiful city _______I’ve ever seen. This is the best TV _______ is made in China. The first museum _______ he visited in China was the History Museum. that that that 先行词被形容词最高级或序数词修饰时,引导定语从句用that 。

  31. I’ve read all the books ________ you lent me. No sample ________ we nave received is satisfactory. Please send us any information ________ you have about the subject. He is the only person _________ was present at the time. that that that that 先行词被any,some,no,much,few,little,every,all,very,only,last修饰时,引导定语从句用that 。

  32. The famous writer and his works _________ the radio broadcast have aroused great interest among the students. A victim is a person,animal or thing ________ suffers pain,death,harm,etc. that that 先行词中既有人又有事物时,引导定语从句用that .

  33. Who _______ you have ever seen can do it better ? Who _______ you are talking to is the young fellow ? that that Who做先行词时,引导定语从句用that 。 Well done !

  34. 三、不用that,而用which,who,whom的情况 He made the same mistakes again ,_____ made his parents very angry. Yesterday I bought a dictionary,_______ cost me more than 100 yuan . Mr Smith,_______ gave a talk several months ago,will come again. My uncle has come back from abroad,________ I haven’t met for along time. which which who whom 在非限制性定语从句中,指事物用which,指人用who或whom。

  35. Her bag ,in ________ she put all her money,has been stolen. This is the ring on ________ she spent 1000 dollars. Xiao Wang, with ________ I went to the concert, enjoyed it very much. which which whom 在介词后面,指事物用which,指人用whom。

  36. 注意:如何判断介词 1、看定语从句中动词与介词的搭配 The girl _____ which he had fought all his life no longer seemed important to him. He is the man _____ whom I think you can depend . for on

  37. 2、看定语从句中形容词与介词的搭配 He referred me to some reference books ______ which I am not very familiar. Dolphins might be trained to cooperate with fishermen and help them by finding or even catching fish, ______ all of which activities dolphins are expert. with in

  38. 3、根据先行词判断,所用的介词与先行词 搭配 The rate ______ which wild animals are being destroyed has increased. This is our classroom, _______________ which there is a teacher’s desk. at in the front of

  39. The committee consists of 20 members,5 of _______ are women. The book contains 50 poems, most of ________ were written in 1930s. There are two left, one of _______ is almost finished, and the other of _______ is not quite. I have a sentence, the meaning of _______ I don’t understand. whom which which which which 名词/代词/数词+ of +which/whom

  40. where 引导的定语从句。 先行词是表示地点的名词或含有地点意义的抽象名词,用where引导定语从句,在从句做状语。 This is the townwhere(= in which ) I spent my childhood. The table where (= at which ) she is sitting is a new one. Can you think of a situation where you may use this expression?

  41. 若定语从句缺主语或宾语,用which或that引导定语从句。若定语从句缺主语或宾语,用which或that引导定语从句。 注意 1 where The library ________ students often study was on fire last night. The library, _______ was built in the 1930s,needs repairing. The library ________ you visited yesterday was built in 1990. which which

  42. 区分where引导的定语从句和状语从句 注意 2 where前面有被修饰的地点名词时,是定语从句,否则是状语从句。 When you read books, you had better make a mark at the spot where you have any questions. When you read books , you had better make a mark where you have any questions.

  43. when 引导的定语从句。 先行词是表示时间的名词,用when引导定语从句,在从句作状语。 I’ll never forget the day when (= on which ) I met you. This was the time when ( =at which ) he left for Beijing . We will put off the outing until next week, when we won’t be busy.

  44. 若定语从句缺主语或宾语,用which或that引导定语从句。若定语从句缺主语或宾语,用which或that引导定语从句。 注意: when I’ll never forget the day _________ we first met in the park. I’ll never forget the time _________ I sent on campus. I’ll never forget the time __________ was spent with you. which\that which\that

  45. why引导的定语从句。 先行词是表示原因的名词,用引导定语从句,在从句中作状语。 This is the reason why ( = for which ) I didn’t come here. The reason __________ she gave was not true. which\that

  46. whose 引导的定语从句。 表示所属关系。 The river _________ banks are covered with trees flows to the sea. whose There are in this class 20 students, ______ are different. A.whose backgrounds B.the backgrounds of whom C.of whom the backgrounds D.the backgrounds of whose

  47. Adverbial Clause

  48. 时间状语从句 ___________________________________ ___________________________ • 1. I was reading when my mother came in. • 2. Don’t go out before I come back . • 3. I’ll give you a phone as soon as I come back. • 4. The moment the button is pressed the machine starts. • 5. I waited for him until he came back. • when, as, while, after, before , after, until, till, as soon as , the moment, __________________________ ______________________________________________ ___________________________

  49. 表示“一…就….”的句型 • 1 as soon as • 2. on doing/on one’s n • 3. no sooner …(had done) than …(did) hardly ….(had done) when…(did) scarcely …(had done) when …(did) • The thief was caught ____ ____ ____ he arrived in Dalian. • ____ _______ in Dalian, the thief was caught. • Hardly _____ the thief _____ in Dalian _____ he was caught. • The thief _____ _____ _____ _______in Dalian than he was caught. • The thief ______ ______ ______ in Dalian ______ he was caught. as soon as On arriving had arrived when no had sooner arrived had scarcely arrived when

  50. when/while/as/during/before as When • He was laughing ______ he was having his meal. • _____he left school at fourteen, he began to make a living by himself. • _____ a young man, he went to France for French. • Beijing looks beautiful especially _______ autumn. • He was about to leave _______ the telephone rang. • It will be a long time ________ we see each other again. • He is very poor ________his brother is rich. • ____________ taking a walk in the street, he saw an accident. As during when before while When/while