ms chaaban s crash course in grammar n.
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Ms. Chaaban’s crash course in grammar. You must know these punctuation rules!!!. 1 . Commas 2 . Semicolons 3. Colons 4. Dashes 5. Apostrophes. Independent clause: a complete idea in itself or in other words, one complete sentence.

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you must know these punctuation rules
You must know these punctuation rules!!!

1. Commas

2. Semicolons

3. Colons

4. Dashes

5. Apostrophes

slide3

Independent clause: a complete idea in itself or in other words, one complete sentence.

Dependent clause: A statement that is combined with an independent clause to create a complete idea or one complete sentence.

A dependent clause can’t even stand on its own! It is LITERALLY a needy statement.

A compound sentence contains two complete thoughts.

FANBOY

examples of l u c i
Examples of L.U.C.I

List:

    • Lena’s recipe for buttermilk biscuits include flour, baking soda, salt, shortening, and buttermilk.

Unnecessary clauses, phrases, or words

- Ali, who never had any formal chef’s training, bakes excellent cheesecake

Combining: *******comma, conjunction***********

    • Maya is good at basketball, but she’s better at soccer.

Introductory elements

  • If students expect to get a 36 on the ACT, they must study and practice every day.
comma practice
Comma practice

The nature trail is six feet wide and seven miles long. It slithers through the forest like a snake curving, and bending along the banks of the river.

A. NO CHANGE

B. snake, curving and bending

C. snake curving and bending,

D. snake, curving, and bending,

slide7

SEMICOLON

1. Used between two independent clauses that are related. (complete sentences)

  • I can’t decide on a minor; I haven’t even settled on a major yet.

2. Before a conjunctive adverb( or a transitional phrase that is used between two sentences (independent clauses).

  • My friends said it was a great movie; however, I thought it was just one big chase scene.
  • Julie practiced her speech for over a week; as a result, she won the speaking competition.
slide9

Today I’m going to the beach, school starts again tomorrow.

a. NO CHANGE

b. the beach school

c. the beach; school

d. the beach: school

the comma splice
The comma splice

The comma splice error is one of the most common mistakes students make on the ACT. A sentence that “sounds” fine does not necessarily mean it is correct.

Writing offenders

dashes
DASHES
  • Dashes are like detour signs in the grammar world!
  • Indicate non-essential information that can be removed without affecting the basic meaning of a sentence.

John Locke-whose writings strongly influenced the Declaration of independence-was one of the most important thinkers of the eighteenth century.

      •  If you have one dash, you need a second one at the end of the non-essential information!!!!!
          • This is the most important rule you need to know for the ACT!
      • It cannot be omitted or replaced by a comma or by any other punctuation mark.  

Incorrect: John Locke - whose writings strongly influenced the Declaration of Independence, was one of the most important thinkers of the eighteenth century.

practice
PRACTICE

I have tried as many sports as have been possible in my life and I have enjoyed all of them. I had competed in national gymnastics which is probably the most holistically challenging for ten years. This sport took precedence in all of middle and high school for me.

No change

Competed in national gymnastics--which is probably the most holistically challenging of all the sports I did--for ten years.

Competed in—national gymnastics—which is probably the most holistically challenging of all the sports I did for ten years.

Competed in national gymnastics--which is probably the most holistically challenging for ten years.

colons
COLONS
  • To introduce something that follows logically; that is, an effect or consequence:
      • There was one thing stopping me from getting up on that stage: pure, unadulterated fear.
  • To introduce the elements in a list:
      • Bring these items to the ACT: an admission ticket, pencils, erasers, and a watch.
colon practice
COLON PRACTICE

You should bring: an admission ticket, pencils, erasers, and a watch to the ACT.

or

Bring these items to the ACT: an admission ticket, pencils, erasers, and a watch.

apostrophes
APOSTROPHES
  • Apostrophes are the second most commonly tested punctuation mark on the English Test.
  • Apostrophes primarily indicate possession, but they are also used in contractions.
      • show possession by indicating that somebody or something owns something else.

Possession of a singular noun = ‘s

    • Robert’s jacket, Ben’s phone, Rasha’s pencil, Jenna’s notebook.

Possession of a plural noun= s’

    • The boys’ teacher was in the room.
    • My mom forgot the dogs’ food.
apostrophe formula test
Apostrophe formula/test

The word “it’s”– with an apostrophe—is only used when you want to say “it is” or “it has.”

Fool proof test- Read the sentence and try to replace “it’s” with “it is” or “it has.”

It’s important= It is important

It’s been nice talking to you= It has been nice talking to you.

The word its– without an apostrophe-is the possessive form of the word “it.”

The baby bear could not find its mother.

Review: Which other punctuation rule is demonstrated in this slide?

slide19

Last minute tips

According to Princeton Review—ACT English Test

1.Think of it as an editing test. Your mission is to make each passage as clear and as well written as possible.

• There is no order of difficulty of the passages or the questions.

• On this section, think four words: Complete, Consistent, Clear, Concise.

• Spot the error and then eliminate the answers that don’t fix it.

slide20

OMIT is correct half the time it appears. If the underlined portion isn’t necessary to make the sentence Complete, Consistent, or Clear, get rid of it.

• If you can count something (like dollars), use fewer, number, and many. If you can’t count something (like cash) use less, amount, and much. More works with both.