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E_English Grammar Course

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  1. E_English Grammar Course Chapter VI The Complex Sentence

  2. Issues • Subordination • Classifications of subordinate clauses • Subordinators • Nominal clauses • Adverbial clauses • Comparative and Comment clauses

  3. 1/1 Subordination 1 Subordination • Non-symmetrical relation held • between two clauses: one clause is • a constituent/ part of the other

  4. i.e. one clause is • Non-symmetrical relation, • a constituent/ part of the other Subordination 1/2 Subordination 1 • Non-symmetrical relation held • between two clauses: one clause is • a constituent/ part of the other 1 2 21 [I like John [because John likes me] ] 1 1 [superordinate/ independent/ main clause ] 2 2 [subordinate/ dependent clause]

  5. Hierarchy of clauses Subordination 1/3 Subordination 1 X- Y- Z- ( I think [ that you can do it { if you try} ] ) S V O A Z = subordinate to Y Y = subordinate to X Y & Z = dependent clauses X = independent clause

  6. 2/1 Classifications of subordinate clauses 2 Classifications of subordinate clauses By structural type By functional type

  7. By structural type Finite clause Nonfinite clause Verbless clause 2/2 Classifications of subordinate clauses 2

  8. By structural type Finite clause Nonfinite clause Verbless clause 2/3 Classifications of subordinate clauses 2 • contains a subject and a predicate • verb phrase having tense, person & number concord, & mood

  9. 2/4 Classifications of subordinate clauses 2 By structural type Finite clause Nonfinite clause Infinitive with to -ing participle Infinitive without to -ed participle

  10. 2/5 Classifications of subordinate clauses 2 By structural type Finite clause Nonfinite clause Infinitive with to -ing participle Infinitive without to -ed participle Without S: The best thing would be to tell everybody. With S: The best thing would be for you to tell everybody.

  11. 2/6 Classifications of subordinate clauses 2 By structural type Finite clause Nonfinite clause -ing participle Infinitive with to Infinitive without to -ed participle Without S: Leaving the room, he tripped over the mat. With S: Her aunt having left the room, I declared my passionate love for Celia..

  12. By structural type Finite clause Nonfinite clause -ing participle Infinitive with to Infinitive without to -ed participle 2/7 Classifications of subordinate clauses 2 Without S: All I did was hit him on the head. With S: Rather than John do it, I’d prefer to give the job to Mary.

  13. By structural type Finite clause Nonfinite clause -ing participle Infinitive with to Infinitive without to -ed participle 2/8 Classifications of subordinate clauses 2 Without S: Covered in snow, he looked like a snowman. With S: We left the room and went home, the job finished.

  14. By structural type Finite clause Nonfinite clause Verbless clause 2/9 Classifications of subordinate clauses 2 1. Ellipsis of the verb ‘be’ - Dozens of people died in the accident, many of them children. - Whether right or wrong, he always dominates the arguments.

  15. By structural type Finite clause Nonfinite clause Verbless clause 2/10 Classifications of subordinate clauses 2 • 2. Reduction of non-finite clauses • Too nervous to reply, he stared at the book in front of him • and dared not look up.

  16. By function Nominal clause Adverbial clause Comparative clause Comment clause 2/11 Classifications of subordinate clauses 2

  17. Subordinating conjunctions Simple subordinators Compound subordinators Correlative subordinators 3/1 Subordinators 3

  18. Subordinating conjunctions Simple subordinators Compound subordinators Correlative subordinators 3/2 Subordinators 3 after, though, although, as, because, before, if, once since, that, until, when where, while, etc.

  19. Subordinating conjunctions Simple subordinators Compound subordinators Correlative subordinators 3/3 Subordinators 3 • ending with ‘that’: in that, so that, such that … • ending with optional ‘that’: now (that), provided (that), • supposing (that), seeing (that)… • ending with ‘as’: so far as, as long as, so as (to do sth)… • ending with ‘than’: sooner than, rather than… • others: as if, as though, in case

  20. Subordinating conjunctions Simple subordinators Compound subordinators Correlative subordinators 3/4 Subordinators 3 if… then, although… yet, as… as, so… as, so… that no sooner… than, more/ less… than, the… the, whether… or

  21. 3/5 Subordinators 3 Other indicators of subordination Wh-element initial markers Subject-operator inversion No marker

  22. Other indicators of subordination Wh-element initial markers Subject-operator inversion No marker 3/6 Subordinators 3 I don’t know who knocked at the door last night.

  23. Other indicators of subordination Wh-element initial markers Subject-operator inversion No marker 3/7 Subordinators 3 Had it not been for your help, I would have died.

  24. Other indicators of subordination Wh-element initial markers Subject-operator inversion No marker 3/8 Subordinators 3 1. nominal clause e.g. I suppose (that) you’re right. 2. comment clause e.g. You’re right, I suppose.

  25. 4/1 Nominal clauses 4 Nominal Clauses Finite Non-finite that clause to-infinitive nominal clause wh-interrogative clause nominal –ing clause Yes - No interrogative clause bare infinitive Nominal relative clause

  26. Finite Nominal Clauses that clause wh-interrogative clause Yes - No interrogative clause Nominal relative clause 4/2 Nominal clauses 4 - S: That you were wrong is undeniable. - Od: I knew that I was wrong. - Cs: The problem is that he refuses to speak in court. - Appositive: The fact that he hates English makes it hard for him to study it. - Cadj: I’m sure that things will improve.

  27. Finite Nominal Clauses that clause wh-interrogative clause Yes - No interrogative clause Nominal relative clause 4/3 Nominal clauses 4 • Function as S, Od, Cs, Ap, Cadj, • & Cprep (They haven’t decided on who • wins the cup.) • - Leave a gap of unknown information

  28. Finite Nominal Clauses that clause wh-interrogative clause Yes - No interrogative clause Nominal relative clause 4/4 Nominal clauses 4 • Is formed with if/ whether • e.g. Do you know if/ whether the teacher • has come yet?

  29. Finite Nominal Clauses that clause wh-interrogative clause Yes - No interrogative clause Nominal relative clause 4/5 Nominal clauses 4 • S: What he is pursuing is fame. • Od: I want to see whoever in charge of • this department. • Oi: She gave whoever came into the store • a handful of sweets. • Cs: University is where you train for your • future career. • - Co: You can call me whatever you like. • - Ap: Tell me your nickname, that is, the • way your friends often call you. • Cprep: Vote for whichever candidate you • like.

  30. Non-finite nominal clauses to-infinitive nominal clause nominal –ing clause bare infinitive 4/6 Nominal clauses 4 - S: To become an MC has always been my dream. - Od: John wanted her to open the door. - Cs: My wish is to stay here one more week. - Ap: His ambition to be a famous writer was fulfilled. - Cadj: I’m glad to help you.

  31. Non-finite nominal clauses to-infinitive nominal clause nominal –ing clause bare infinitive 4/7 Nominal clauses 4 • - Function as S, Od, Cs, Ap, Cprep, • & Cadj • - Genitive case in formal style • e.g. I’m surprised at his making • that mistake. • Objective or common case: • e.g. I’m surprised at him making • that mistake.

  32. Non-finite nominal clauses to-infinitive nominal clause nominal –ing clause bare infinitive 4/8 Nominal clauses 4 - ‘to’ is optional in case of ‘do’ proform. E.g. All I did was (to) turn off the gas. - bare infinitive is obligatory when the infinitive clause is initial E.g. Turn off the gas was all I did.

  33. 5/1 Adverbial clauses 5 Time Purpose Place Result Condition & concession Manner & Comparison Reason or cause Proportion & Preference Circumstance

  34. 5/2 Adverbial clauses 5 Time Purpose Place Result - after, before, until, since, when + finite clause - after, before, since, until, when(ever), while + V-ing - once, until, when(ever), while + V-ed - as soon as, once, when(ever), while + Verbless clause Condition & concession Manner & Comparison Reason or cause Proportion & Preference Circumstance

  35. 5/3 Adverbial clauses 5 Time Purpose Place Result - Introduced by ‘where’/ ‘wherever’ E.g. When I retire, I will travel around the world. Where the fire had been, we saw nothing but rubble. Condition & concession Manner & Comparison Reason or cause Proportion & Preference Circumstance

  36. Time Purpose Place Result Condition & concession Manner & Comparison Reason or cause Proportion & Preference Circumstance 5/4 Adverbial clauses 5 - Conditional clauses state the dependence of one circumstance on another. - Introduced by if, unless, provided that, providing that… E.g. If you’re kind to her, she will do anything for you.

  37. 5/5 Adverbial clauses 5 Time Purpose Place Result Condition & concession Manner & Comparison Reason or cause • - Concessive clauses imply a contrast between two circumstances. • - Introduced by though, although, while, whereas, even if • E.g. Although he isn’t good-looking, people are still attracted to him. Proportion & Preference Circumstance

  38. Clauses of condition or concession Alternative conditional-concessive clauses Universal conditional-concessive clauses 5/6 Adverbial clauses 5

  39. 5/7 Adverbial clauses 5 Clauses of condition or concession Alternative conditional-concessive clauses Combine conditional meaning with subjunctive meaning E.g. Whether they beat us or we beat them, we’ll celebrate tonight.

  40. 5/8 Adverbial clauses 5 Clauses of condition or concession Universal conditional-concessive clauses Indicate a free choice from among any number of conditions E.g. No matter how hard he tried, he could never summon enough courage to tell her the truth.

  41. 5/9 Adverbial clauses 5 - introduced by because, since, as - I didn’t lend him the book because I needed it for my assignment. (adjunct) - They’ve lit a fire, because I can see smoke rising. (disjunct of reason) Time Purpose Place Result Condition & concession Manner & Comparison Reason or cause Proportion & Preference Circumstance

  42. 5/10 Adverbial clauses 5 - express a fulfilled condition/ a relation between a premise (in the subordinate clause) and the conclusion (in the main clause) - introduced by because, since, as, & seeing that E.g. Seeing that the weather has improved, we shall enjoy our game. = The weather having improved, we shall enjoy our game. Time Purpose Place Result Condition & concession Manner & Comparison Reason or cause Proportion & Preference Circumstance

  43. 5/11 Adverbial clauses 5 Time Purpose - are adjuncts - introduced by (in order) (for N) to, so as to, so that E.g. I tiptoed into the room so as not to wake the baby up. He tried to improve his English so that he could study abroad. - has ‘putative’ meaning (modal auxiliaries are used) Place Result Condition & concession Manner & Comparison Reason or cause Proportion & Preference Circumstance

  44. 5/12 Adverbial clauses 5 Time Purpose Place Result - are more factual than putative  may contain an ordinary verb form without a modal auxiliary - introduced by so that/so (informal) E.g. We planted many shrubs, so (that) the garden looked beautiful. Condition & concession Manner & Comparison Reason or cause Proportion & Preference Circumstance

  45. 5/13 Adverbial clauses 5 Time Purpose Place Result Condition & concession Manner & Comparison Clauses of manner – (exactly) as, (just) as (Just) as a moth is attracted by a light, (so) he was fascinated by her. Reason or cause Proportion & Preference Circumstance

  46. 5/14 Adverbial clauses 5 Time Purpose Place Result Condition & concession Manner & Comparison Clauses of comparison – as if, as though He looks as if he is going to faint. He treated me as though I were a child (unreal) Reason or cause Proportion & Preference Circumstance

  47. 5/15 Adverbial clauses 5 Clauses of proportion express a ‘proportionality’ or equivalence of tendency between two circumstances E.g. As he grew older, (so) his enthusiasm for the cause decreased. The more he went deeper into the forest, the more scared he felt. Time Purpose Place Result Condition & concession Manner & Comparison Reason or cause Proportion & Preference Circumstance

  48. 5/16 Adverbial clauses 5 Clauses of preference are introduced by rather than/ sooner than E.g. Rather than go there by air, I’d take the train. Rather than sitting here complaining, we should act. Rather than a new shirt, he bought a dictionary. Time Purpose Place Result Condition & concession Manner & Comparison Reason or cause Proportion & Preference Circumstance

  49. 6/1 Comparative & comment clauses 6 Comp-element S: More people eat at KFC than any other fastfood restaurant. Cs: I’m healthier than most people of my age. Od: She eats much more than me. Oi: Santa has brought more children joy than anybody else. A: She works harder than my brother.

  50. 6/2 Comparative & comment clauses 6 Ellipsis in Comparative Clause 1. Optional ellipsis James enjoyed the cake more than Susan enjoyed the cake. James enjoyed the cake more than Susan enjoyed it. James enjoyed the cake more than Susan did. James enjoyed the cake more than Susan. 2. Obligatory ellipsis (of object) - James enjoyed the cake more than Susan enjoyed. + James know more about the theatre than Susan knows.