The Middle Ages The period of European history from the fall of the Roman Empire in the West (5th century) to the fall of Constantinople (1453),
Middle ages are sometimes called Medieval Times, or Dark Ages. • Why Do you think they call it Dark Ages?
The Middle Ages or Medieval Period ( 500 CE -1500 CE.) Rise of New Kingdoms/States that are not united New Kingdoms are unable to protect themselves from Barbarian Invasions, causing a need for localized Protection Barbarian Invasions cause the Fall of the Western Roman Empire The Rise of Feudalism in Europe
Key words Essential to Feudalism • Feudalism- (Fyoo-duh-lih-zuhm) A system of PROTECTION in the Middle Ages. • Vassal- An agreement between lords & knights that stated that they would protect the land. Knights were called their lords “vassals”.
Popes • Leader of Church • Popes were seen as representatives of God on Earth.
Kings • Leader of Kingdoms/ States • All lords/nobles and knights swore an oath of loyalty to the king to protect the land.
Nobles/Lords • Swore loyalty to the king and were given land called “fiefs” to protect
Knights • Armored warriors that protected the land. • They often received “fiefs” for their service.
Peasants • Worked on the lords land • Serfs: An agricultural laborer bound under the feudal system to work on his lord's estate
Protection from who? • The Vikings invaded from Scandinavia- They were quick and savage. They attacked Ireland, England and France. They looted and captured people to sell into slavery. Most Europeans lived in terror of them • The Magyars from Asia • The Muslims (from South)
Feudalism • Social & Political system that developed after • the collapse of the Roman Empire. • Important Characteristics • Loyalty • Service • Hierarchies of Power • Protection
The Feudal System • The Anglo-Normans brought a new language, French, and a new social system, feudalism, to the country. • Feudalism was not just a social system, but also a caste system, a property system, and a military system.
The Feudal System • The basic chain of feudalism was as follows: 1. God 2. Kings 3. Nobles (Barons, Bishops, etc.) 4. Knights- who did not own land 5. Serfs or peasants- who did not own land
The Three Estates • The three estates (social classes) in the Middle Ages were Aristocracy (kings and their vassals), Clergy (Those who prayed- priests, monks, nuns, friars, etc.), and the Commons (everyone else- doctors, lawyers, clerks, yeomen, etc).