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Chapter 3 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Chapter 3
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  1. Chapter 3 Solids, Liquids, and Gases 8th Grade Science

  2. States of Matter • Solids, liquids, and gases can be _________, __________, or ___________. • _________ - a definite shape and volume • Solids will keep their shape in any position and in any container • Particles of a solid are packed _________together • Particles of a solid ______ slightly – they are in constant motion. • Particles stay in the same position - ________ in place elements compounds mixtures Solid Closely vibrate vibrate

  3. Types of Solids • _____________ - particles in a regular, repeating pattern. Examples: sugar, salt, and snow. • Cyrstalline solids will _____ at a specific temperature. • _______________ - particles are not arranged in a particular pattern. Examples: plastics, rubber, and glass. • Amorphous Solids will _________ at a specific temperature – they may become softer and softer until they change into other substances. Example: butter. Crystalline solids melt Amorphous solids not melt

  4. Liquids • ______ - a definite volume and takes the shape of its container. - particles of a liquid are packed almost as closely as a solid. -particles move around more _____ than in a solid. - no definite _____ but a definite ________. ______ - freely moving particles. Liquids freely shape volume Fluid

  5. Properties of Liquids • ____________ - the result of an inward pull among the particles of a liquid that brings the particles on the surface closer together. • Water particles pull together and bead up on surfaces or form a skin – water striders walk on water due to surface tension • ___________ - a liquids resistance to flowing. • Depends on the size and shape of the particles and the attractions between the particles. • Liquids with ______ viscosity flow ______ (honey) Surface Tension viscosity high Slowly

  6. Gases • ______ - can change volume , particles are spread out and free to move, no definite shape. • Particles of gas move in all directions. • As gas particles move, they fill the space around them • Particles of gas can be squeezed into a container. When the container is open, the particles will move freely and spread out. Gas

  7. Changes Between Solid and Liquid • Particles of a liquid have more ________ energy than particles of the same substance in solid form. • Particles of the same substance as a gas has even more _________ energy than the liquid or solid form. • A substance changes state when its thermal energy either _______ or __________ sufficiently. thermal thermal increases decreases

  8. Melting • A change in state from a solid to a liquid involves the ________ in thermal energy. • ___________ is the change in state from a solid to a liquid. • ___________ - specific temperature at which the melting occurs. • At a substances ____________, the particles that are bound together begin to vibrate so rapidly that they break free from their fixed positions. increase Melting Melting point Melting point

  9. Freezing • __________ - the change of state from a liquid to a solid. • _________ of melting • ____________ - the particles begin to move so slowly that they begin to form a regular pattern. • Example: water loses energy – water molecules move slowly because they lose energy until freezing is complete Freezing Reverse Freezing Point

  10. Changes between Liquid and Gas • ____________ - the change from a liquid to a gas. • Particles gain enough _______ to form a gas. • ___________ - vaporization that takes place only on the surface of a substance. • ________ - vaporization that occurs when a liquid changes to a gas below the surface as well as at the surface of the liquid. Vaporization energy evaporation boiling

  11. Boiling Point / Condensation • The __________ of a substance depends on the __________ of the air above. • The _______ the pressure, the ___ energy needed for the particles to escape into the air. • ___________ - opposite of vaporization. Particles in a ___ lose enough energy to form a _____. Boiling point pressure lower less Condensation Gas liquid

  12. Changes between a Solid and a Gas • ____________ - surface particles of a solid gain enough energy that they form a gas without passing through the liquid phase. • Example: dry ice (aka Sublimation