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Volleyball Rules & Mechanics Session. Intramural Volleyball Rules. Any rule not covered in intramural rules follows NFHS guidelines Team Requirements & Equipment 6 players: 4 minimum to start Co-Rec: combinations may include 3 men/3 women, 3 men/2 women, 3 men/2 women, 2 men/2 women

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intramural volleyball rules
Intramural Volleyball Rules
  • Any rule not covered in intramural rules follows NFHS guidelines
  • Team Requirements & Equipment
    • 6 players: 4 minimum to start
      • Co-Rec: combinations may include
        • 3 men/3 women, 3 men/2 women, 3 men/2 women, 2 men/2 women
        • No restrictions on amount of hits per gender
    • Non-marking rubber-soled athletic shoes
    • No jewelry (including rubber bands) or casts
      • Please be MORE STRICT ABOUT THIS!
    • Knee braces must have protective padding
the game
The Game
  • Coin Toss determines which team serves & sides
    • Team not serving 1st, will serve 1st in second game
      • Whichever side teams were warming up will start on that side to start game
    • Teams also switch sides between games
  • Play all 3 games
    • 1st Two games to 25
      • Win by 2 w/ 30 pt cap
    • Last game to 15
      • Win by 2 w/ 20 pt cap
    • Rally Scoring:
      • Let Serve = Ball may hit the net and go over ON THE SERVE
      • Score on every play regardless of team serving
        • Point and team winning point gets to serve
    • One time-out per game
playing the ball
Playing the Ball
  • Maximum of 3 contacts
    • Exception: a block is not considered one of the contacts
    • Contact is where a player intentionally or accidentally touches ball
      • Cannot have contact below waist: dead ball – illegal hit
        • Cannot use feet or legs to hit ball
  • Illegal Hit: ball comes visibly to rest or prolonged contact w/ player
    • Holding, catching, throwing, rolling, lifting, & pushing
      • Penalty = point and side out for opposition
playing the ball cont d
Playing the Ball cont’d
  • Double Hit: player illegally contacts ball twice in succession or ball rebounds from one body part to another on a single attempt to play ball
    • Penalty: Point and side out for opposition
  • Simultaneous contact by opponents
    • The team side that the ball falls, the players have 3 hits to get ball over (simultaneous contact treat as a block)
      • Held ball will direct a replay by the officials
  • Net Play: ball contacting and crossing net shall remain in play provided contact is in playing area
    • Side out for balls that do not go over the net
playing the ball cont d7
Playing the Ball cont’d
  • Net Foul (Penalty is point and side out for opposing team)
    • Player contact any part of nets (including cables)
      • Not a foul if hair touches net, or force of ball hit by opponent’s hit pushes net into a player
    • Interference by player who makes contact w/ opponent who is making legitimate effort to play ball
  • Center Line Foul: Play that has crossed their foot or body part completely over center-line
    • For a Foul…the whole foot or whole body part must be over the line
    • Can touch line with foot
    • If player falls, any part of body that goes over the line is a fault
      • Penalty is point and side out for opposition
playing the ball cont d8
Playing the Ball cont’d
  • Blocking the Ball
    • A ball which is entirely on the opponent’s side of the net is permitted to be blocked when the opposing team has had an opportunity to complete its attack
      • Includes when the team has used 3 contacts
      • Team had opportunity to spike ball or in official’s judgment directs the ball w/ intent to return to opponent’s court
      • Ball is falling near the net on attacking team side, and the officials feels no member of attacking team could make play on ball
    • Watch for net fouls and contact below net (umpire)
      • Look for follow through of spiker (referee) for net fouls
back line attack
Back Line Attack
  • Back Line player may attack ball if:
    • Leaves the floor from behind the 10 ft. line and its imaginary extension
      • Any part of foot touches 10 ft. line: Foul and pt. for opposition
    • Back line player may not attempt to block the ball in front of the 10 ft. line nor may they play the ball above the net (includes attacking or dinks).
  • Server must wait for official’s beckon/whistle (use preventative officiating & tell players to wait for whistle)
    • Re-serve if they do not wait for beckon/whistle
      • Side-out on 2nd consecutive serve w/ not beckon/whistle
      • Any part of foot touches back row line on serve: Fault and pt. for opposition
    • Serves may hit the net and go over (ball is in play)
    • Balls that hit net and does not fall in non-serving teams’ court: illegal and point for non-serving team
    • Server may not touch end line
      • Server’s body may be in the air over lines, having left the floor from serving area
      • Cannot hit ball with both hands
      • Cannot step back into court until ball is hit
service cont d
Service cont’d
  • Serves landing on the line or inside court
    • Ball is in, whole ball has to land outside lines to be out
  • Server has five seconds to make a legal serve
    • May toss and catch bad toss, as long as no swinging motion has been made to attempt serve
      • Only 1 re-serve for bad toss
player positioning
Player positioning
  • No player on court may be closer to sideline, end line or center line than adjacent player on court
    • Front line player may not overlap with back-row players
    • Players in front line cannot overlap each other side by side, nor can the back row
  • After the ball has left the server’s hand for the serve, players may go anywhere on the court
    • Cannot have more than 3 front-row players on the court during a rotation
live ball dead ball
Live Ball/Dead Ball
  • Ball becomes live when legally contacted for service
  • Ball becomes dead when:
    • Ball touches antennas or any part of the net outside playing court
    • Ball strikes the floor
    • Ball contacts permanent object (excluding net) above or outside playing court
      • Exception: Ball striking ceiling or overhead obstruction above playable area shall remain in play provided the ball contacts on the side of the net that occupied the ball
      • Ball contacting track railing and stuck in the ceiling will be a point for the opposition
    • Player commits a fault
    • Served ball contacts but does not clear net
    • Official’s whistle for any reason
  • Point shall be replayed if a stray volleyball/basketball enters playing
  • Unlimited number of substitutions
  • Substitutes must replace the server
  • Team can only substitute at a dead ball
  • Ask questions
  • Frequent eye contact between officials during the match
  • Do not be afraid to call an official’s time out to collaborate with your partner
    • Don’t do the easy thing and call replay
      • Can ask players if unsure of line calls
  • Always communicate the decisions with captains
be consistent
Be consistent
  • In ball handling violations
    • Carry for one team is carry for another
      • Can instruct captain’s at meeting about open palm/carry, not serving 2 handed
  • In determining unsportsmanlike conduct
  • Treatment of both teams
be confident
Be confident
  • Know your roles and responsibilities
  • Sell the call
  • Move past your own/other’s criticisms
  • Keep the match moving
duties of the referee
Duties of the referee
  • Conduct the pre-match conference
  • Blow the whistle for serve and dead ball
  • Recognize requests for substitution or time-out
  • Make ball handling decisions
  • Signal the result of each play or action/infraction
  • Scan the court before beckoning for serve
  • Make server foot fault calls
  • Responsible for the alignment of the serving team
  • Keep track of the number of hits by a team during play
  • Signal the end of the game or the end of a time-out
use of the whistle
Use of the whistle
  • When to use whistle
    • to beckon teams into playing position
    • for serve
    • to signal any dead ball
    • for time out and/or substitution when unrecognized by umpire
    • re-serve or re-play
    • end of game switching of sides of court
    • end of match
  • Assume position on stand across from score table
  • During serve, no hand on net or cable.
    • Can put hand on top of net after serve to indicate if there is a net fault during play
coverage during play
Coverage during play
  • Concentrate on flight of ball at all times
  • Anticipate flight/interference with obstacles
  • Anticipate next player to contact
  • Illegal alignment on serving team
  • Pre-serve scan of benches, teams, and umpire
  • Let Serve:
    • A legally served ball that contacts and crosses the net entirely between the antennas shall remain in play.
  • Ball Handling
    • Prolonged contact
    • Double hit
    • Below the waist
  • Prolonged Contact
    • Rolls
    • Comes to rest
    • Carried
  • Double Hit
    • Multiple contacts are permitted only on any first team hit, whether or not the ball is touched by the block
    • Multiple contact on second or third hit is illegal
referee can overrule
Referee can overrule

Umpires Can Give Clues to the Head Officials of Calls that they may see (signal, but don’t blow whistle)

Just because you make this discreet signal does not mean the referee will make that call. He/she may have seen something differently. These situations should be discussed after the game. Some officials, as umpire, prefer to blow the whistle and make the illegal back row player call. This should be discussed with your partner. Either way, the call should be made.

Begin Service: Extend one arm towards server, then blow whistle to serve & move arm overhead in a beckon motion

In: extend one arm w/ an open hand palm down toward floor between attack line & net

  • Out: Hold forearms in front of chest, hands open, palms toward face
  • Point: Indicate a #1 w/ index finger w/ the hand on side which won the point
Illegal hit/carry: Slowly lift hand & forearm, palm up, on the side which violated

Replay/play over: Fisted hands, w/ thumbs up, lift arms upward

  • Illegal Back Row Attack: Raise hand beside head & rotate forearm forward and downward
  • Illegal Alignment/Out of Rotation: Circular motion with entire hand
  • Double hit: Hand & arm nearest violating team raised, showing 2 fingers
  • Four hits: Same as double hit but indicate 4 fingers
  • Touch: Hand on offending teams’ side held beside head, palm toward head, brush upward across fingertips one time with other hand palm forward
  • Net foul/serve: Hand of outstretched arm touches the side of the net where foul occurred
Substitution: Bring both hands in front of face (traveling signal with open palmsSignals
  • Line violation: Indicate the line where the violation occurred by pointing down towards line
  • Illegally Reaching over net
Change Sides: Raise forearms and swing right arm in front of body and left arm in back of body

End of game: cross arms against chest

  • Time-out: Raise arm up of team that indicates T/O and bring other arm up to form a “T” Verbally indicate time-out to both parties
    • Official’s Time-out: Point at shoulders and indicate time-out
  • Initiated by Umpire:
    • Net violation
    • Foot faults
    • Substitutions
    • Time outs
    • Illegal alignment on receiving team
    • Authorization to enter (for substitution)
    • End of the game signal
how to use signals
How to use Signals
  • To stop play
    • Sound whistle w/ authority
    • Signal the violation & hold the hand & arm signal long enough to be seen
      • Signal point, side out, or replay
      • Verbalize the decision when necessary
      • Use the arm or hand on the side of the team involved
umpire responsibilities
Umpire Responsibilities
  • When to use the whistle
    • Do not repeat referee whistle
  • Mirror signals made by the referee
  • Make net fault calls
  • Responsible for the net from the bottom of the top net cord to the ground
  • Make center line foot fault calls
  • Responsible for alignment of the receiving team
  • Make back row attack and block calls for the receiving team
  • Make ball handling calls when the referee is screened from the play
  • Position yourself on the blocking team side of the net and transition to the other side before the 2nd team contact
  • Alter your position as required to get a better look at the net
  • Assist the referee in calling the match – Work as a team!
  • Maintain eye contact with the R1 when echoing signals
  • Do not hide behind the support when echoing signals
umpire duties
Umpire Duties
  • Informal Signals
  • Given as discreet signal to referee – DO NOT BLOW THE WHISTLE
    • HOLD your in/out call. Give it only if the referee asks for your help
    • Ball handling calls out of the sight of the referee
    • Down ball vs. pancake save
    • Back-row player foul – this can be a delayed call
    • Touches by the receiving team on a ball going out of bounds
    • Four hits (discuss this with your partner beforematch)
  • Stand outside the sideline back from the standard
  • When
    • On or just before the referee whistles for serve
  • Position
    • 1-2 meters back from standard
    • 1-2 meters on side of receiving team
    • Square to court
  • Focus
    • Receiving team
  • Watching for
    • Position faults
  • Move to side opposite ball during play
  • Move slightly to see alignment at time of serve
  • Step back at each dead ball to facilitate visual contact with benches/coaches
  • Anticipate trajectory of the ball an move to see in and out as ball crosses the net
coverage during play42
Coverage during play
  • At moment of serve
    • near net on receiving side
    • listen for contact of serve
    • watch for illegal alignment at moment of serve
  • When
    • On contact of serve
  • Position
    • 1-2 meters back from standard
    • Slightly on side of receiving team
  • Focus
    • Blockers and the attack zone
  • Watching for
    • Net violations
    • Illegal attacks or blocks
    • Center line violations
coverage during play43
Coverage during play
  • Concentrate on center line and net area by first watching the floor, up to the net, touches on blocks, down the net and back to the floor
    • Resist the temptation to follow the ball away from the net
  • When
    • After the set
  • Position
    • 1-2 meters back from standard
    • Slightly on side of blocking team
  • Focus
    • Along the net
  • Watching for
    • Net violations
    • Touches by blockers
during attack
During Attack
  • Maintain a wide field of vision, observant to the play that is developing on both sides of the net.
  • As play approaches net, your focus should be narrowing into the attack zones
  • Look through the net to observe any possible back row attack violations-whistle a back row fault if you are sure that it has occurred. (This can also be signaled to referee discreetly.)
  • As attack develops, narrow your focus down the net
during attack cont
  • Focus along the net – primarily the top of the net
  • Observe both teams.
  • Look for net violations on the attackers touching the net on their follow-through.
  • Look for net violations on blockers, primarily if they reach over net to execute their block
  • Look for touches by blockers
  • When
    • As the attackers and blockers land
  • Position
    • 1-2 meters back from standard
    • Slightly on side of blocking team
  • Focus
    • Along net and centerline
  • Watching for
    • Net violations
    • Centerline violations
after the attack
After the Attack
  • Focus along the net & centerline as the players land
  • STAY FOCUSED ON THE NET as the ball is hit into the opponent’s court.
  • Look for net violations
  • Look for centerline violations
  • Start your transition to the opposite side of the net as the serving team makes their transition for their attack.
  • Move quickly and begin the routine again.
after the whistle
  • Focus along the net and through the attack zone to the referee
  • Be aware of any trash talking going on after the rally
  • If a ball going out of bounds was touched by a blocker, signal immediately
  • Mimic the referee’s signals
back row play
Back Row Play
  • Play continues when a back-row player (on or in front of the attack line),
    • Contacts the ball, which is completely above the height of the net,
    • On the teams’ first or second contact,
    • Directing the flight of the ball toward a teammate,
    • And the opponent legally contacts the ball that breaks the vertical plane of the net, play is legal.
    • BUT, if the ball completely crosses the net untouched, it is a back-row player foul.
back row play50
Back Row Play
  • Same situation but…
    • The flight of the ball is toward the opponent’s court and not toward a teammate.
    • And is legally touched by an opponent above the net, or completely crosses the net;
    • It becomes a back-row player foul.
    • The flight of the ball is the determining factor. The flight has to be toward a teammate.
net play
Net Play
  • A player shall not contact a ball that is completely on the opponent’s side of the net unless the contact is a legal block.
  • When is a player considered “over the net”?
    • Cannot take a play away from opponents
    • A team must be given its 3 allowable hits
checking alignment
Checking alignment
  • Receiving team
  • helpful hint - find a pair of diagonally opposite players, I.e. left front & right back, continually check on their position on the floor
  • At the time of the serve
    • All right-side players must have part of one foot closer to the right sideline than both feet of the center player in their corresponding row
    • All left-side players must have part of one foot closer to the left sideline than both feet of the center player in their corresponding row
    • All front row players must have part of one foot closer to the center line than both feet of their corresponding back row player
  • Check primary setters if possible
  • Moment of serve is critical time for alignment
  • Track entering subs into proper positions
points to remember
  • Always signal on the proper side of the net for any net violations and centerline violations.
  • On any ball going out of bounds, make NO call, and only give it if the referee asks for your help.
  • Proper position is the key to seeing and making the right call, so move quickly.
A player may block a ball that is completely on the opponent’s side of the net when:
    • Attacking team has had its 3 hits.
    • In the official’s judgment, the attacking team has directed the ball toward the opponent’s court, as in a spike or drive from the backcourt.
    • Ball is falling near the net, and no member of the attacking team can make a play on the ball.

REMEMBER: It is never legal to attack a ball that is completely on the opponents’ side of the net

proper alignment
Proper Alignment



use of penalty cards
Use of Penalty Cards
  • Use preventative officiating first
  • Cards are cumulative in a match and carry over from previous games
  • Officials do not have to issue a yellow card before issuing a red card or a red card before a disqualification
  • R1 administers cards, R2 may request cards
  • Remember that a yellow card is only a warning
  • Use cards for unsportsmanlike conduct
  • Use yellow cards for:
    • Warning for minor offenses
    • Use of illegal equipment
    • Player attempting to grandstand/showboat
use of penalty cards cont
Use of Penalty Cards cont
  • Use Red Cards for:
    • Serious misconduct
    • Swearing
    • Taunting an opponent
    • Repeat offenses that have already received a yellow card
  • Disqualification should occur when:
    • A player or coach commits a second serious offense or third minor offense
    • Fighting
    • Injuring another player intentionally
  • Degree of offense and level of card (yellow vs. red vs. yellow/red) is at the discretion of the R1 and is not subject to protest