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Race Management and the New Rules. Trevor Lewis. What’s New for 2013?. THE RACING RULES OF SAILING 2013 – 2016. There are many minor changes. In general, they are trying to make the rules say better what most people thought they meant anyway – and to remove inconsistencies. ►

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Race Management and the New Rules


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    1. Race Management and the New Rules Trevor Lewis

    2. What’s New for 2013? THE RACING RULES OF SAILING 2013 – 2016 There are many minor changes. In general, they are trying to make the rules say better what most people thought they meant anyway – and to remove inconsistencies. ► These changes include some minor game changes.►

    3. What’s New for 2013? THE RACING RULES OF SAILING 2013 – 2016

    4. What’s New for 2013? THE RACING RULES OF SAILING 2013 – 2016 There is a new general statement at the start of the rules: ‘As the leading authority for the sport, the International Sailing Federation promotes and supports the protection of the environment in all sailing competitions and related activities throughout the world.’ ► There is a new Basic Principle: ENVIRONMENT RESPONSIBILITY Participants are encouraged to minimise any adverse environmental impact of the sport of sailing. ► There is a new rule that applies at all times when boats are on the water: 55 TRASH DISPOSAL A competitor shall not intentionally put trash in the water. ► Main Menu

    5. What’s New for 2013? THE RACING RULES OF SAILING 2013 – 2016 CONTENTS There is an index of ISAF online rules documents The RYA has added in YR1 (the RYA version of the rule book) a statement explaining the status of the Equipment Rules of Sailing ► There is a new kiteboarding Appendix F, and old Appendix F, Procedures for Appeals and Requests becomes Appendix R ► Main Menu

    6. What’s New for 2013? THE RACING RULES OF SAILING 2013 – 2016 • INTRODUCTION • In Terminology, a ‘vessel’ is clarified to mean any boat or ship. Excluding appendices, the word vessel is used in: ► • The definition Obstruction • Rule 1.1, Helping Those in Danger • Rule 23, Capsized, Anchored or Aground; Rescuing • The preamble to Part 2 • Rule 41(b), Outside Help • Rule 42.3(g), Propulsion • Rule 42.3(h), Propulsion • Rule 47.2, Limitations on Equipment and Crew • Rule 62.1(b), Redress ► Main Menu

    7. What’s New for 2013? THE RACING RULES OF SAILING 2013 – 2016 There are six changes to definitions: Definition Finish The words ‘…crosses the finishing line in the direction of the course from the last mark…’ are simplified to crosses the finishing line from the course side. No change of meaning is intended. ► A third case of a boat that has crossed the finishing line but has not finished is added – where the boat continues to sail the course. This addresses a conceptual difficulty of a course that includes (typically) ‘starting / finishing line’ at the end of each lap. ► It also deals with a course where the finishing line is away from the rest of the course – e.g., it is laid to windward of the windward mark – and the leading boat miscounts her laps, sails to cross the finishing line too early, realises her mistake and returns to do another lap. ► Main Menu

    8. What’s New for 2013? THE RACING RULES OF SAILING 2013 – 2016 • The definition Keep Clear now says: • A boat keeps clear of a right-of-way boat • if the right-of-way boat can sail her course with no need to take avoiding action and • when the boats are overlapped, if the right-of-way boat can also change course in both directions without immediately making contact. ► • The test of keeping clear remains in two parts (which are now separated for clarity). The first line now reminds us that keeping clear is relevant only when near a right-of-way boat – no change. ► Main Menu

    9. What’s New for 2013? THE RACING RULES OF SAILING 2013 – 2016 • Definition Keep Clear • A boat keeps clear of a right-of-way boat • if the right-of-way boat can sail her course with no need to take avoiding action ► • There is no change to this first part of the keep-clear test, which applies in all cases. ► Main Menu

    10. What’s New for 2013? THE RACING RULES OF SAILING 2013 – 2016 • Definition Keep Clear • A boat keeps clear of a right-of-way boat • if the right-of-way boat can sail her course with no need to take avoiding action and ► • when the boats are overlapped, if the right-of-way boat can also change course in both directions without immediately making contact. ► • (b) is for situations where boats are sailing on similar headings – the right-of-way boat will be able to sail her course with no need to take avoiding action, but the other boat could be too close. ► • There is a small game change in this second part of the test – it now applies to boats that are overlapped on opposite tacks. ► Main Menu

    11. What’s New for 2013? THE RACING RULES OF SAILING 2013 – 2016 Definition Keep Clear A boat keeps clear of a right-of-way boat … (b) when the boats are overlapped, if the right-of-way boat can also change course in both directions without immediately making contact. ► This used to refer to the effect of a course change by a leeward boat, which confined this part of the test to rule 11 situations. ► By referring now to any overlapped right-of-way boat, this test will now apply to boats sailing downwind overlapped on opposite tacks. ► The definition Overlap continues to say that the term ‘overlapped’ applies to boats on opposite tacks when rule 18 applies or both boats are sailing more than ninety degrees from the true wind. ► Main Menu

    12. What’s New for 2013? THE RACING RULES OF SAILING 2013 – 2016 Definition Keep Clear A boat keeps clear of a right-of-way boat … (b) when the boats are overlapped, if the right-of-way boat can also change course in both directions without immediately making contact. ► Red, on port tack, passes the first part of the keep-clear test, because Green on starboard tack can sail her course with no need to take avoiding action. ► Red was previously not affected by the second part of the test, as it applied only to same-tack boats. ► Red may now fail the second part of the test, as it now applies to any downwind overlap situation. So Red must keep further away from Green. The same is true for opposite-tack situations if rule 18 also applies between them. ► Main Menu

    13. What’s New for 2013? THE RACING RULES OF SAILING 2013 – 2016 Definition Mark This used to say …an object attached temporarily or accidentally to a mark is not part of it. There were disagreements over the meaning of ‘temporarily’. ► The highlighted words have been removed, and the definition now says: …an object attached accidentally to a mark is not part of it. ► The intention is to make it clearer that committee boats may attach RIBs and other devices to themselves to protect against damage from boats that are starting. ► Main Menu

    14. What’s New for 2013? THE RACING RULES OF SAILING 2013 – 2016 The definition Room is now: The space a boat needs in the existing conditions, including space to comply with her obligations under the rules of Part 2 and rule 31, while manoeuvring promptly in a seamanlike way. ► Here are some examples of the effect of the new words that are underscored here (which do not change the game, but rather make explicit what was implicit and only explained in cases). ► Main Menu

    15. What’s New for 2013? THE RACING RULES OF SAILING 2013 – 2016 Definition Room The space a boat needs …to comply with her obligations under the rules of Part 2… This frequently concerns ‘three-boat’ situations. Green is an obstruction to Yellow, but not to Blue or Red. ► Blue must give Yellow room under rule 19 to pass Green. ► Red must give Blue space for Blue to comply with that Part 2 obligation. ► Main Menu

    16. What’s New for 2013? THE RACING RULES OF SAILING 2013 – 2016 Definition Room The space a boat needs …to comply with her obligations under the rules of Part 2… This frequently concerns ‘three-boat’ situations. If they were overlapped at zone entry, Yellow must give mark-room to Red. ► Blue must give Yellow space to comply with that Part 2 obligation. ► Nothing new, just clearer ► Main Menu

    17. What’s New for 2013? THE RACING RULES OF SAILING 2013 – 2016 • Definition Room • The space a boat needs …to comply with her obligations under the rules of Part 2… ► • Other examples include: • - Under rule 23, space that one boat must give to a second boat to avoid a third boat that is capsized, anchored, aground or giving help. ► • Under rule 24, space that one boat that has right of way but is not racing must give to a second boat required to keep clear but also not racing, so as not to interfere with a third boat that is racing. ► • Under rule 24, space that one boat that has right of way but is not sailing a proper course must give to a second boat required to keep clear but also not sailing a proper course, so as not to interfere with a third boat that is taking a penalty or sailing on another leg. ► Main Menu

    18. What’s New for 2013? THE RACING RULES OF SAILING 2013 – 2016 Definition Room The space a boat needs …to comply with her obligations … under rule 31 ► If they were overlapped at zone entry, Yellow must give Red space to avoid touching the mark. ► Nothing new, just clearer. ► It is not the definition that creates an obligation to give room to avoid touching a mark – it will be rule 18. ► Main Menu

    19. What’s New for 2013? THE RACING RULES OF SAILING 2013 – 2016 • Definition Mark-Room • This is largely new, but it is not aimed at changing the game – it is an example of trying to find the words to say unambiguously what most people understand to be how mark-rounding should operate when rule 18 requires mark-room to be given. The definition comprises: ► • In all cases, room (as redefined) to leave a mark on the required side ► • In some cases, room (as redefined) to ‘sail to the mark’ ► • When necessary, room (as redefined) to round the mark ► • Room (as redefined) to tack at a mark in some situations, which are slightly more restrictive than before ► • We can look at those components in more detail.. ► Main Menu

    20. What’s New for 2013? THE RACING RULES OF SAILING 2013 – 2016 Definition Mark-Room Room for a boat to leave a mark on the required side… This is self-evident. It harmonises with the redefinition of Room to include room for a boat to comply with rule 31. ► Main Menu

    21. What’s New for 2013? THE RACING RULES OF SAILING 2013 – 2016 Definition Mark-Room Also, (a) room to sail to the mark when her proper course is to sail close to it… ► If they were overlapped at zone entry, Yellow must give room to Red to sail to the mark. ► Nothing new. ► Main Menu

    22. What’s New for 2013? THE RACING RULES OF SAILING 2013 – 2016 Definition Mark-Room Also, (a) room to sail to the mark when her proper course is to sail close to it… If they were overlapped at zone entry, Yellow’s proper course is not to sail to the mark, because of the presence of Red. ► It is now clearer that Blue cannot pretend that Red is not there. She must give room for two, not just for one. ► Blue must not squeeze Yellow. Instead, as we have already seen, Blue must give Yellow room to meet her Part 2 obligation to give room to Red, and room for Red to avoid touching the mark. ► Main Menu

    23. What’s New for 2013? THE RACING RULES OF SAILING 2013 – 2016 Definition Mark-Room Also, (a) room to sail to the mark when her proper course is to sail close to it… ► Note that the obligation is to give room to sail to the mark, not room to sail a proper course. Consider boat with high gybing angles. ► Red’s proper course may be to carry on to her right gybing angle for the mark. ► However, all that Green is require to give her is room to sail to the mark, because Red’s proper course is to sail close to it. ► Green must bear away now, to give room for Red to sail directly to the mark. ► Main Menu

    24. What’s New for 2013? THE RACING RULES OF SAILING 2013 – 2016 Definition Mark-Room And, (b) room to round the mark as necessary to sail the course. ► This replaces ‘room to sail a proper course while at the mark’. ► This makes clear that the room to be given at the mark is the space for seamanlike manoeuvring, but not (if greater) the space for an inside boat or a boat ahead to sail the course round the mark that will get her quickest to the finishing line. ► Main Menu

    25. What’s New for 2013? THE RACING RULES OF SAILING 2013 – 2016 Definition Mark-Room However, mark-room does not include room to tack unless she is overlapped inside and to windward of he boat required to give mark-room and she would be fetching the mark after her tack. Yellow must give Blue room to tack. ► Nothing new. ► Main Menu

    26. What’s New for 2013? THE RACING RULES OF SAILING 2013 – 2016 Definition Mark-Room However, mark-room does not include room to tack unless she is overlapped inside and to windward of he boat required to give mark-room and she would be fetching the mark after her tack. Blue is not entitled to room to tack from Yellow, as Blue would not be fetching the mark after her tack. It’s a clarification. ► Definition Fetching (unchanged) A a boat is fetching a mark when she is in a position to pass to windward of it and leave it on the required side without changing tack. ► Main Menu

    27. What’s New for 2013? THE RACING RULES OF SAILING 2013 – 2016 Definition Party The definition is reordered for clarity, and to make the inspection committee or measurement committee for the event a party to a redress hearing when it is alleged that the committee acted improperly – as we will see under rule 62.1(a), Redress. (A ‘committee’ can be one person.) ► This does not make the inspection committee or measurement committee for the event a party when there is a protest concerning class rules or personal equipment – even if the protest was made by the race committee under rule 60.2 following a report under rule 43.1(c) or (more commonly) under rule 78.3, by an equipment inspector or measurer for the event. ► In these cases, the inspector or measurer will be a witness in the race committee’s protest – the race committee is the party. ► Main Menu

    28. What’s New for 2013? THE RACING RULES OF SAILING 2013 – 2016 PART 1, FUNDAMENTAL RULES There is no change ► PART 2, WHEN BOATS MEET Section A, RIGHT OF WAY There is a small clarification in the preamble to section A, which now says that: A boat has right of way over another boat when the other boat is required to keep clear of her… (Previously, ‘A boat has right of way when another boat is required…’) ► Main Menu

    29. What’s New for 2013? THE RACING RULES OF SAILING 2013 – 2016 PART 2, WHEN BOATS MEET SECTION B, GENERAL LIMITATIONS Rule 14, AVOIDING CONTACT Rule 14(b) is changed from (b) shall not be penalized under this rule unless there is contact that causes damage or injury. to (b) shall be exonerated if she breaks this rule and the contact does not cause damage or injury. ► This brings rule 14 into line with instant exonerations not requiring a hearing under Section C rules and removes an inconsistency with the fundamental obligation to retire or rotate when a boat breaks a rule. ► Main Menu

    30. What’s New for 2013? THE RACING RULES OF SAILING 2013 – 2016 PART 2, WHEN BOATS MEET SECTION C, AT MARKS AND OBSTRUCTIONS In the preamble to Section C, the following sentence no longer appears: When rule 20 applies, rules 18 and 19 do not. That is because, when rule 20 begins to apply when a boat hails for room to tack, the response required implicitly disapplies rule 19, Room to Pass an Obstruction – so it does not need saying. There is a potential conflict between rule 20, Room to Tack at an Obstruction, and rule 18.2, as discussed under rule 20, which resolves the conflict. Also, all exonerations under Section C now lie in a new rule 21, Exoneration. ► Main Menu

    31. What’s New for 2013? THE RACING RULES OF SAILING 2013 – 2016 PART 2, WHEN BOATS MEET SECTION C, AT MARKS AND OBSTRUCTIONS There is a new rule 18.2 (c)(2), which clarifies that, when a boat is required to give mark-room by rule 18.2(b) because of their positions when entering the zone – If she becomes overlapped inside the boat entitled to mark-room, she shall also give that boat room to sail her proper course while they remain overlapped. ► So when a boat gets a too-late inside overlap, she must not only give the other boat space to sail to the mark, but also (if different) space to sail as near the mark as she wants – and if the boat entitled to mark-room does squeeze the barger out, rule 21, Exoneration will exonerate almost all other rules she breaks in so doing, except rule 14, Avoiding Contact when there is contact resulting in damage or injury. ► Main Menu

    32. What’s New for 2013? THE RACING RULES OF SAILING 2013 – 2016 PART 2, WHEN BOATS MEET SECTION C, AT MARKS AND OBSTRUCTIONS Rule 18.2(e) tells us that a boat is not required to give mark-room to an inside overlapped boat when she is unable to do so. Previously, this applied only to a inside overlap from clear astern (usually gained near the zone inside one of several overlapped boats that were all previously ahead). It now also applies at a windward mark, when one boat tacks into a windward inside overlap, and the leeward boat is unable to give mark-room. ► Main Menu

    33. What’s New for 2013? THE RACING RULES OF SAILING 2013 – 2016 PART 2, WHEN BOATS MEET SECTION C, AT MARKS AND OBSTRUCTIONS Rule 18.3 is retitled Tacking in the Zone, and its wording is simplified. There is a small game change. The rule used to apply when a boat changes tack and as a result is subject to rule 13 in the zone (when the other is fetching the mark). The rule now applies when a boat in the zone passes head to wind and is then on the same tack (as a boat that is fetching the mark). So now some part of a boat must be in the zone before changing tack in order to switch on rule 18.3. However, the reduction of distance from the mark at which a tack will switch on rule 18.3 must be very small. ► Main Menu

    34. What’s New for 2013? THE RACING RULES OF SAILING 2013 – 2016 PART 2, WHEN BOATS MEET SECTION C, AT MARKS AND OBSTRUCTIONS Rule 18.3(a) used to tell the boat that tacked not to cause the other boat to sail above close-hauled to avoid her. It now says that she shall not cause the other boat to sail above close-hauled to avoidcontact. The ‘other boat’ could be the windward of two same-tack boats, responding to the presence of the boat to leeward. ► Main Menu

    35. What’s New for 2013? THE RACING RULES OF SAILING 2013 – 2016 PART 2, WHEN BOATS MEET SECTION C, AT MARKS AND OBSTRUCTIONS Rule 20, ROOM TO TACK AT AN OBSTRUCTION The rule is rewritten into a more logical order. It says explicitly that a boat hailed for room to tack must respond, even if the hailing boat hailed when she was not entitled to do so – it is an issue to be resolved by penalty turns or a protest. ► When three or more boats are involved, and the boat that is leeward or clear ahead hails for room to tack, the nearest boat herself acquires the right for room to carry out her tack by hailing the next boat for room to tack, even if she was not yet at sufficient proximity to the obstruction to entitle her to hail if she had not been hailed. The rule title says it all – 20.3, Passing on a Hail to an Additional Boat. ► Main Menu

    36. What’s New for 2013? THE RACING RULES OF SAILING 2013 – 2016 PART 2, WHEN BOATS MEET SECTION C, AT MARKS AND OBSTRUCTIONS Rule 20, ROOM TO TACK AT AN OBSTRUCTION Rule 20 conflicts with rule 18 only when two port-tack boats approach a starboard-tack boat at a port-hand windward mark. ► Rule 20.2(e) says that from the time a boat hails until she has tacked and avoided the hailed boat, rule 18.2 does not apply between them. Blue must give room for Yellow to tack and avoid Blue (and Green). ► Main Menu

    37. What’s New for 2013? THE RACING RULES OF SAILING 2013 – 2016 PART 2, WHEN BOATS MEET SECTION C, AT MARKS AND OBSTRUCTIONS Rule 21, EXONERATION This new rule combines all the exonerations previously set out separately in rules 18 and 20. It adds exoneration for breaking rule 31, Touching a Mark, when compelled to hit a mark because mark-room was wrongfully denied. ► Main Menu

    38. What’s New for 2013? THE RACING RULES OF SAILING 2013 – 2016 PART 2, WHEN BOATS MEET SECTION C, AT MARKS AND OBSTRUCTIONS Rule 21, EXONERATION Rule 21 also adds an exoneration when rule 19 applies at an obstruction, for a boat is sailing within the room to which she is entitled, if, in an incident with the boat required to give her that room, she breaks a rule of Section A, rule 15 or rule 16. So when room is not given, the inside boat can decide not to keep clear of the outside boat - or even to touch the outside boat rather than the obstruction. Main Menu

    39. What’s New for 2013? THE RACING RULES OF SAILING 2013 – 2016 PART 2, WHEN BOATS MEET Section C, AT MARKS AND OBSTRUCTIONS Rule 21, EXONERATION Note that rule 14 is not listed as one of the rules giving rise to exoneration under rule 21. Rule 14(b) may give exoneration, but not if damage or injury results. In that case, exoneration may still be granted by a protest committee under rule 64.1(a), Decisions: Penalties and Exoneration when the boat was compelled to break rule 14. ► Main Menu

    40. What’s New for 2013? THE RACING RULES OF SAILING 2013 – 2016 PART 2, WHEN BOATS MEET SECTION D, OTHER RULES Because of the new rule 21, Exoneration, rules 21, 22 and 23 are renumbered to rules 22, 23 and 24. Rule 22.3 now makes clear that is only when moving astern through the water by backing a sail that the boat must keep clear of one that is not. So the rule will apply even if, because of a strong current, she is still moving ahead with respect to the ground. ► Main Menu

    41. What’s New for 2013? THE RACING RULES OF SAILING 2013 – 2016 PART 3, CONDUCT OF A RACE Rule 25, Notice of Race, Sailing Instructions and Signals is divided for clarity. New rule 25.3 says that a race committee may display a visual signal by using either a flag or other object of a similar appearance. So boards can be used instead of flags, even when a rule (as do many rules in Part 3) refers to a flag. This removes the need for rule 33 to specify a board. ► Main Menu

    42. What’s New for 2013? THE RACING RULES OF SAILING 2013 – 2016 PART 3, CONDUCT OF A RACE Rule 28, Sailing the Course is rewritten, mainly for clarity. There are two important changes. ► Rule 28 now says that a boat may correct errors to comply with this rule, provided that she has not finished. (However, the definition Finish opens the door for a boat to correct her course by continuing to sail it after crossing the finishing line). ► Secondly, the string test now starts to apply to a boat when she beings to approach the starting line from its pre-start side to start, rather than when she starts. This may increase the possibility that a starting limit mark laid on the pre-course side of the starting line must be respected. ► Main Menu

    43. What’s New for 2013? THE RACING RULES OF SAILING 2013 – 2016 PART 4, OTHER REQUIREMENTS WHEN RACING Despite the Part’s title, its preamble now says that new rule 55, Trash Disposal applies at all times when boats are on the water. ► RULE 41, OUTSIDE HELP Rule 41(a) now allows help for a crew member who is ill, injured or in danger. This is moderated by an additional clause: However, a boat that receives a significant advantage in the race from help received under rule 41(a) may be protested and penalized: any penalty may be less than disqualification. Rule 41(b) permits help, after a collision, from the crew of the other vessel to get clear. Previously, it said ‘from the crew of the other boat’ This makes clear that it does not matter whether the other is racing or not (see Terminology in the Introduction). ► Main Menu

    44. What’s New for 2013? THE RACING RULES OF SAILING 2013 – 2016 PART 4, OTHER REQUIREMENTS WHEN RACING RULE 42, PROPULSION Rule 42.3(c), Exceptions, has changed the meaning of Surfing to: Rapidly accelerating down the front of a wave This is because the direction of the wave may not be to leeward – for instance a wave created by a passing vessel. However, pumping to surf down a wave would still not be permitted on a beat to windward, because the rule says so. ► Main Menu

    45. What’s New for 2013? THE RACING RULES OF SAILING 2013 – 2016 PART 4, OTHER REQUIREMENTS WHEN RACING RULE 42, PROPULSION Rule 42.3(c), Exceptions, now makes clear that a sail may be pulled in only once per wave or gust to plane or surf, as opposed to sequential pulling of sheet and guy. The means of pulling the sail is not specified, so it could include a gybing line. ► Main Menu

    46. What’s New for 2013? THE RACING RULES OF SAILING 2013 – 2016 PART 4, OTHER REQUIREMENTS WHEN RACING RULE 42, PROPULSION New rule 42.3(e) is inserted, to allow pumping to ‘uninvert’ an inverted batten, unless this clearly propels the boat. The next two exceptions are relettered. ► Main Menu

    47. What’s New for 2013? THE RACING RULES OF SAILING 2013 – 2016 PART 4, OTHER REQUIREMENTS WHEN RACING RULE 42, PROPULSION Rule 42.3(h) copies rule 41(b) in referring to a collision with another vessel, rather than another boat. Rule 42.3(h) also makes clear that rule 42.3(i) allows an exception to be made to rule 42.3(h)’s prohibition of the use of an engine for getting clear after grounding or collision. (Rule 42.3(i) continues to allow the sailing instructions to permit the use of engine propulsion in stated circumstances, which could include getting clear after grounding or collision.) ► Main Menu

    48. What’s New for 2013? THE RACING RULES OF SAILING 2013 – 2016 PART 4, OTHER REQUIREMENTS WHEN RACING RULE 44.1, PENALTIES AT THE TIME OF AN INCIDENT: Taking a Penalty It is now clearer that, when the sailing instructions specify the Scoring Penalty or some other penalty, this replaces the One-Turn or Two-Turns Penalty. It is now clearer that the question of whether a boat gained a significant advantage by breaking a rule (thus requiring her to retire) is not tested until after a boat has taken a penalty at the time of the incident. So a boat need not retire if a significant advantage from breaking rule was temporary, because she no longer had it after she had spun. ► Main Menu

    49. What’s New for 2013? THE RACING RULES OF SAILING 2013 – 2016 PART 4, OTHER REQUIREMENTS WHEN RACING Rule 48, FOG SIGNALS AND LIGHTS; TRAFFIC SEPARATION SCHEMES New rule 48.2 says that a boat shall comply with rule 10, Traffic Separation Schemes, of the IRPCAS. The rule title reflects this addition. Race committees for coastal and oceanic races should consider the implications of a course that goes close to a TSS. RYA guidance is that making the whole of the TSS (excluding any inshore zone) a prohibited area may be best. ► Main Menu

    50. What’s New for 2013? THE RACING RULES OF SAILING 2013 – 2016 PART 4, OTHER REQUIREMENTS WHEN RACING Rule 49.2’s title is now CREW POSITION; LIFELINES. The addition of lifelines to the title draws attention to a significant change. The torso rule applies in all cases when there is an upper and lower lifeline (as opposed previously only when they were of wire): and, if class rules do not specify the material or minimum diameter of lifelines, they shall comply with the corresponding specifications in the ISAF Offshore Special Regulations. This may require prompt attention in the rules of some classes. ► Main Menu