14. A Topical Approach to. LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT. Families, Lifestyles, and Parenting. John W. Santrock. Analyzing Family Life. The Family Life Cycle. Fig. 14.1. Marital relationship. Child behavior and development. Parenting. Analyzing Family Life.
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Child behavior and development
Analyzing Family LifeDirect and Indirect Interactions Between Parents and Children
Improves quality of marriage
May reduce risk of divorce
Linked to higher level of commitment to spouse and lower level of destructive marital conflict
Benefits of a good marriage
Lower levels of depression, anxiety, anger
The Diversity of Adult Life StylesWhat Makes Marriages Work
Percent of divorcees
The Diversity of Adult Life StylesDivorce Rate in Relation to Number of Years Married
Power Assertion: intended to stop undesirable behavior though physical or verbal enforcement of parental control; includes demands, threats, withdrawal of privileges, spankings. Generally induces fear. Least effective.
Induction:encourage desirable behavior (or discourage undesirable behavior) by reasoning with child; includes setting limits, demonstrating logical consequences, explaining, discussion, getting ideas from child about what is fair. Most effective.
Withdrawal of Love:may include ignoring, isolating, showing dislike for child.
Higher levels of achievement
Anxiety about social comparison
Failure to show initiative
Poor communication skills
Lower school performance
However, no one right way to raise children. Cause-effect not demonstrated (e.g., parent style causing child’s incompetence- consider innate factors, temperament)
Restrictive, punitive style; parents exhort child to follow their directions and respect their work and effort
Encourages children to be independent but still places limits and controls on their actions
Parent very uninvolved in child’s life
Parents very involved with children, place few demands/controls on them
ParentingBaumrind’s Parenting Styles
Infliction of physical injury
Failure to provide basic needs
Fondling child’s genitals, sodomy, intercourse, incest, exhibitionism, rape, and commercial exploitation
Acts or omissions by parents or other caregivers that have caused, or could cause, serious behavioral, cognitive, or emotional problems