Warning: Graphic Pictures Ch 4 Integument System Skin Problems – infections, allergies, or damages
1. Athlete’s Foot – mostly from fungal infection
2. Boils & Carbuncles Bacterial infection & inflammation of hair follicle. • Boil = 1 • Carbuncle = several connected boils
3. Black & Whiteheads • Blackheads - oil and dead skin cells trapped in a oil pore, makeup • Whiteheads - flesh-or white-colored bumps due to skin pore blockage; blockage is deeper than blackhead (covered w/epithelium)
4. Cold Sores • Caused by Herpes simplex virus I • Common, contagious, incurable
5. Contact Dermatitis • Inflammatory response – red, itchy rash • Non-contagious • Chronic – long term, reoccuring • Caused by contact with allergens or irritants, exposure to sunlight, or by poor circulation, even stress.
6. Impetigo • Crusting skin infection • Caused by staph and strep germs • Pus filled blisters • Highly contagious
7. Psoriasis • Chronic – arms, knees, elbows, scalp • Red patches covered with white scales • Unknown cause; some think autoimmune disorder • Triggered by trauma, infection, stress
8. Cyanosis • Blue skin, membranes, and/or nails • Due to reduced oxygen in blood
9. Burns • Tissue damage and cell death caused by heat, electricity, UV radiation, or chemicals • Associated dangers - Dehydration - Electrolyte imbalance - Circulatory shock
Rules of Nines • Way to determine the extent of burns • Body is divided into 11 areas for quick estimate • Each area represents ~ 9%
Burns are CRITICAL if… • Over 25% of body has 2nd degree • Over 10% has 3rd degree • 3rd degree burns on face, hands, and/or feet Contact Burn Electrical Heat Burn Scald Burn Sunburn Inhale Burn Chemical
10. Skin Cancer Abnormal cell mass Two types 1. Benign -does not spread (encapsulated) 2. Malignant -Metastasized (moves) to other parts of body Skin cancer is most common type of cancer.
3 types of Malignant Skin Cancer A. Basal cell carcinoma - least malignant - Most common • Arises from stratum basale B. Squamous Cell Carcinoma • -arises from stratum spinosum • Metastasizes to lymph nodes • Early removal allows a good chance of cure
C. Malignant Melanoma • Most deadly • Cancer of melanocytes • Metastasizes rapidly to lymph & blood vessels • Detection uses ABCD rule.
ABCD Rule A = Asymmetry • Two sides of pigmented mole do not match B = Border irregularity • Borders of mole are not smooth C = Color • Different colors in pigmented area D = Diameter • Spot is larger then 6 mm in diameter
Albinism • Genetic recessive
Hyperpigmentation • too much sun • drug reactions • poor nutrition
Vitilgo • autoimmune disorder • linked hyperthyroidism & Addison's Disease, which affects the adrenal gland.
Lichen simplex chronicus • psychological syndrome • compulsive need to scratch • dark, leathery skin • scarring & infection
Lamellar ichthyosis (fish scale disease) • Genetic?
Melasma • Pregnancy mask • Lupus (autoimmune)
Normal Discolorations • Moles - collection of melanocytes • Freckles – some cells make more melanin than others; uneven suntan. • Lentigines - Age spots, sun spots, liver spots - harmless, flat, brown discolorations on the hands, neck & face 40+ yrs; too much sun • Birthmarks – pigmented areas or dilated blood vessels