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Ch 4 Integument System

Ch 4 Integument System

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Ch 4 Integument System

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  1. Warning: Graphic Pictures Ch 4 Integument System Skin Problems – infections, allergies, or damages

  2. 1. Athlete’s Foot – mostly from fungal infection

  3. 2. Boils & Carbuncles Bacterial infection & inflammation of hair follicle. • Boil = 1 • Carbuncle = several connected boils

  4. 3. Black & Whiteheads • Blackheads - oil and dead skin cells trapped in a oil pore, makeup • Whiteheads - flesh-or white-colored bumps due to skin pore blockage; blockage is deeper than blackhead (covered w/epithelium)

  5. 4. Cold Sores • Caused by Herpes simplex virus I • Common, contagious, incurable

  6. 5. Contact Dermatitis • Inflammatory response – red, itchy rash • Non-contagious • Chronic – long term, reoccuring • Caused by contact with allergens or irritants, exposure to sunlight, or by poor circulation, even stress.

  7. 6. Impetigo • Crusting skin infection • Caused by staph and strep germs • Pus filled blisters • Highly contagious

  8. 7. Psoriasis • Chronic – arms, knees, elbows, scalp • Red patches covered with white scales • Unknown cause; some think autoimmune disorder • Triggered by trauma, infection, stress

  9. 8. Cyanosis • Blue skin, membranes, and/or nails • Due to reduced oxygen in blood

  10. 9. Burns • Tissue damage and cell death caused by heat, electricity, UV radiation, or chemicals • Associated dangers - Dehydration - Electrolyte imbalance - Circulatory shock

  11. Rules of Nines • Way to determine the extent of burns • Body is divided into 11 areas for quick estimate • Each area represents ~ 9%

  12. Burns are CRITICAL if… • Over 25% of body has 2nd degree • Over 10% has 3rd degree • 3rd degree burns on face, hands, and/or feet Contact Burn Electrical Heat Burn Scald Burn Sunburn Inhale Burn Chemical

  13. 10. Skin Cancer Abnormal cell mass Two types 1. Benign -does not spread (encapsulated) 2. Malignant -Metastasized (moves) to other parts of body Skin cancer is most common type of cancer.

  14. 3 types of Malignant Skin Cancer A. Basal cell carcinoma - least malignant - Most common • Arises from stratum basale B. Squamous Cell Carcinoma • -arises from stratum spinosum • Metastasizes to lymph nodes • Early removal allows a good chance of cure

  15. C. Malignant Melanoma • Most deadly • Cancer of melanocytes • Metastasizes rapidly to lymph & blood vessels • Detection uses ABCD rule.

  16. ABCD Rule A = Asymmetry • Two sides of pigmented mole do not match B = Border irregularity • Borders of mole are not smooth C = Color • Different colors in pigmented area D = Diameter • Spot is larger then 6 mm in diameter

  17. Pigmentation Disorders

  18. Albinism • Genetic recessive

  19. Hyperpigmentation • too much sun • drug reactions • poor nutrition

  20. Vitilgo • autoimmune disorder • linked hyperthyroidism & Addison's Disease, which affects the adrenal gland.

  21. Lichen simplex chronicus • psychological syndrome • compulsive need to scratch • dark, leathery skin • scarring & infection

  22. Lamellar ichthyosis (fish scale disease) • Genetic?

  23. Melasma • Pregnancy mask • Lupus (autoimmune)

  24. Normal Discolorations • Moles - collection of melanocytes • Freckles – some cells make more melanin than others; uneven suntan. • Lentigines - Age spots, sun spots, liver spots - harmless, flat, brown discolorations on the hands, neck & face 40+ yrs; too much sun • Birthmarks – pigmented areas or dilated blood vessels