The Integument
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The Integument. INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM. Epidermis. I. Two Types A. Invertebrate type - epidermis plus basement membrane - protochordates B. Vertebrate type complex dermis + epidermis Trends - thin in anamniotes thick in amniotes. Basement Membrane. Epidermis. Dermis. Leptoid Scale.

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Integumentary system l.jpg
INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM

Epidermis

I. Two Types A. Invertebrate type - epidermis plus basement membrane - protochordatesB. Vertebrate type complex dermis + epidermis Trends -

thin in anamniotes

thick in amniotes

Basement Membrane

Epidermis

Dermis


Ii dermal derivatives l.jpg

Leptoid Scale

Ganoid Scale

Placoid Scale

Cycloid Scale

Ctenoid Scale

Teeth

II. Dermal Derivatives

A. Dermal armor 1.Dermal bone - Ostracoderms 2. Cosmoid scale of primitive fishes gave rise to dermocranium and dermal girdles

Cosmoid Scale


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Fish Scales

3. Placoid scale of chondrichthyes

Shark placoid scales

and teeth


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4. Ganoid scales of gar and sturgeons

contain the protein ganoin

5. Leptoid scale - loss of ganoinand gave rise to the cycloid

scale & ctenoid scale (with ctenii)

Cycloid scales

Ctenoid scales


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Other Dermal Derivatives

6. Osteoderms - crocodilia

7. Secondary dermal armor - armadillo shell


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B. Scale derivatives 1. Branchiostegal rays - rods of bone

supporting the ventral pharyngeal wall in fish

2. Bony plates of sturgeons


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Summary of Dermal Derivatives

C. Dermal armor derivatives 1. Dermocranium 2. Teeth 3. Dermal girdle 4. Body scales 5. Osteoderms - crocodilians and some lizards 6. Specialized dermal boney shells (dermal bone of armadillo)

Turtles -

Insert Fig. 6.36


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and Finally

D. Chromatophores - derived from embryonic nervous system1. Types a. melanophores - brown to black pigments

b. lipophores & xanthophores - yellowerythrophores - red c. guanophores - white d. iridocytes - contain crystalsAll controlled by hormones

Light

Dark

Pigment


Malanophores l.jpg
Malanophores

In most vertebrates, MSH is produced by an intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland. Its secretion causes a dramatic darkening of the skin of fishes, amphibians, and reptiles. The darkening occurs as granules of melanin spread through the branches of specialized melanocytes called melanophores.


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III. Epidermal Derivatives

A. Epidermal seal cuticle - nonliving layer in protochordates, lung fishes, and larval amphibiansmucoid coat - mucous - fish, amphibians

keratin - in all, but more pronounced in terrestrial vertebratesSquamous cytoplasm granules form keratin that is first prevalent in reptiles and shed - ecdysis


B epidermal scales reptiles birds mammals l.jpg
B. Epidermal scales - reptiles, birds, mammals

Keratin - soon to be shed

New Kertin layer

Mitotic Layer of epidermis

Dermis

Reptilian scales


C claws and nails l.jpg
C. Claws and Nails

Unguis -

keratinized nail

Subunguis -

living tissue that

generates ungus

Pad


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E. Hooves

Unguis

Subunguis

Pad or cuneus

(frog)


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F. Glands

1. Ancestral serous glands - precursor to the glands below

2. Poison glands – amphibians & frog licking

3. Wax glands - birds mammals


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4. Tubular glands - mammals

5. Sweat and

Mammary glands

6. Modern serous glands - Holocrine - cells shed and degenerate into fluidscent glands (reptiles)mucous glandssebaceous gland - oil scent glands of mammalsuroptygial gland - oil gland on tail of birds


G hair l.jpg
G. Hair

Develops from epidermis and

protrudes or grows into the dermis


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Sensory

fiber

Sensory

nerve

Evolution of Hair

  • No fossil evidence of origin of hair

  • Possibly arose from sensory structures of reptiles called prototrichs

Reptilian scales with

triads of prototrichs

Hairs of mammals arranged in triads

today.


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H. Feathers

1. Formation

2. Types a. Down - fluffyb. Filoplumes - hairlike c. Contour


C contour feathers l.jpg

Barb

Barbicelle

c. Contour feathers


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Velvet (not

shed) with

boney core

Bone covered

by velvet that is shed

Antler

Giraffe horn

Keratin

throughout

Keratin

with boney

core

Bovine

horn

Rhino horn

I. HornsJ. Antlers


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Pronghorn

Bone covered with keratin

Large horn in males, small spike in females


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K. Baleen - keratinized plates for

filtering food in balleen whales