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INTEGUMENT. Surface Anatomy. Palpation Bony landmarks Dermatomes Neural assessment. Integument Histology. Epidermis: Stratified squamous epithelium Resting on: Basement membrane Resting on: Dermis: Dense irregular connective tissue. Epidermis.

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surface anatomy
Surface Anatomy
  • Palpation
  • Bony landmarks
  • Dermatomes

Neural assessment

integument histology
Integument Histology
  • Epidermis:

Stratified squamous epithelium

Resting on:

  • Basement membrane

Resting on:

  • Dermis:

Dense irregular connective tissue

epidermis
Epidermis
  • The epidermis is a stratified squamous epithelium.
  • It is made up of many layers of cells.
  • The stratum germinativum is the deepest layer:

Area of high mitotic activity.

epidermis5
Epidermis
  • The stratum corneum is the most superficial layer:

The cells in this layer are dead and keratinized.

  • Between the stratum germinativum and the stratum corneum are several transitional layers represented by cells from the stratum germinativum that are transforming into dead, keratinized cells.
epidermis6
Epidermis
  • The epidermis is innervated.
  • The epidermis is avascular.
dermis
Dermis
  • The dermis is the deepest region of the integument.
  • The dermis is classified as dense irregular connective tissue
  • The dermis has an abundance of collagen fibers
  • There may also be some elastic fibers:

Decrease with age.

dermis8
Dermis
  • The dermis is vascularized.
  • Refer to Figure 1 in your course packet.
thick skin vs thin skin
Thick Skin vs. Thin Skin
  • Classification into thin and thick skin depends on the structure of the epidermis.
  • Layers of epidermis are well-formed in thick skin.
  • Layers of epidermis are not as well-formed or thick in thin skin.
thick skin
Thick Skin
  • Thick skin is found only on the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet.
  • The epidermis of thick skin is 0.4 – 0.6 mm thick
  • Thick skin has no hair follicles.
thin skin
Thin Skin
  • Thin skin is found over the rest of the body.
  • The epidermis of thin skin is 0.075 – 0.150 mm thick.
  • Total skin thickness is 0.5 – 3 mm thick.
skin thickness
Skin Thickness
  • Thickest skin found on back (= thin skin)
  • Thinnest skin found on eyelids (= thin skin)
  • Thicker on extensor surfaces than flexor surfaces.
superficial fascia synonyms
Superficial Fascia: Synonyms
  • Subcutaneous fascia
  • Superficial fascia
  • Hypodermis
  • SubQ
superficial fascia
Superficial Fascia
  • Consists of loose bundles of collagen and elastic fibers with variably sized aggregations of lipocytes (fat cells)
  • May be loosely or tightly attached
  • Supports cutaneous nerves and blood vessels
deep fascia
Deep Fascia
  • Synonyms:

Membranous fascia

Investing fascia

  • Usually several thin layers of tough collagen material
  • Tightly adherent to muscles, bones, tendons, etc.
cutaneous derivatives
Cutaneous Derivatives
  • Glands.
  • Hairs.
  • Nails.
glands
Glands
  • Glands are epithelial structures
  • Glands are classified according to the presence or absence of a secretory duct:

Exocrine

Endocrine

epidermal glands
Epidermal Glands
  • Sudoriferous glands
  • Sebaceous glands
  • Ceruminous glands
  • Mammary glands
sudoriferous glands
Sudoriferous Glands
  • Are long, simple, tubular glands.
  • Their method of secretion is merocrine .
sebaceous glands
Sebaceous Glands
  • Are holocrine .
  • Sebaceous glands are associated with hair follicles.
ceruminous glands
Ceruminous Glands
  • Are located in the external auditory canal.
  • Secrete ear wax.
mammary glands
Mammary Glands
  • Are modified sweat glands
  • Method of secretion is apocrine
hairs
Hairs
  • Hairs develop during 3rd month of gestation.
  • The earliest fine embryonic hair = lanugo.
  • Lanugo is Shed before birth except around eyebrows, scalp, and eyelids.
hairs25
Hairs
  • A new downy coat of hair appears a few months after birth.
  • This new coat is called vellus.
  • Vellus is converted to terminal hair at puberty:

Vellus represents 95% of the hair coverage in males.

Vellus represents 35% of the hair coverage in females.

parts of a hair
Parts of a Hair
  • Shaft:

Made up of dead cornified epidermal cells.

  • Follicle:

Derived from both epidermis and dermis.

  • Dermal papilla with matrix.
parts of a hair27
Parts of a Hair
  • Arrector pili muscle.
  • Sebaceous glands.
  • Hair bulb and connective tissue papilla.
hair growth
Hair Growth
  • Anlagen

Active growth:

Scalp hair = 2-3 years

Eyebrow hair = 3-4 months

hair function and location
Hair Function and Location
  • Hair follicles are innervated, and hairs serve as sensory receptors.
  • Hairs are found everywhere except palms, soles, dorsal distal phalanges, anal and urogenital apertures
nails
Nails
  • Ungis:

Modified stratum corneum

Flattened

Avascular and not innervated

Travels over a nail bed guided by lateral nail grooves

  • Matrix:

Stratum germinativum produces ungis

  • Subungis
melanocytes
Melanocytes
  • Found in deep layers of epidermis
  • Derived from nervous system components
  • Form:

Melanosomes:

Passed off to keratinocytes (cells of epidermis).

Phagocytized by keratinocytes.

melanocytes33
Melanocytes
  • All individuals produce same number of melanosomes.
  • Skin color depends on number of remaining melanosomes.
langer s lines
Langer’s Lines
  • Represent tension lines created by orientation of collagen fibers in the dermis of the skin.
  • Used by surgeons as guides for incisions:

Incisions normally made parallel to Langer’s lines

dermatomes
Dermatomes
  • Specific region of skin innervated by a specific spinal cord level.
  • Refer in syllabus to figure 3