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Integument - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Integument. Skin = composite organ Epidermis = superficial; epithelial tissue; ECTODERMAL Dermis = deep; connective tissue; mostly MESODERMAL Neural Crest Cells = migrate into both epidermis and dermis; ECTODERMAL. Vertebrate Integument Devel.

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integument
Integument
  • Skin =composite organ
  • Epidermis = superficial; epithelial tissue; ECTODERMAL
  • Dermis = deep; connective tissue; mostly MESODERMAL
  • Neural Crest Cells = migrate into both epidermis and dermis; ECTODERMAL
vertebrate integument devel
Vertebrate Integument Devel.
  • Epidermis = generalized ectoderm + neural crest (pigment cells)
  • Dermis = dermatomal mesoderm + scattered neural crest cells
vertebrate embryo section

vertebra

dermatome

myotome

developing

skin

epidermal

ectoderm

epidermis

coelom

neural crest

dermis

Vertebrate Embryo (section)

gut

cephalochordate integument

Mucus

Basal lamina

Cephalochordate Integument
  • Epidermis = 1 cell layer (simple epithelium)
  • Dermis = compact alternating layers of collagen with fibroblasts
  • NO neural crest

EPIDERMIS

DERMIS

vertebrate craniate skin
Vertebrate/Craniate Skin
  • Stratified epidermis(= an epithelium)

Stratum basale (Basal Layer) = deep layer, contacts the basal lamina, mitotically active

Keratin = proteins in superficial epidermis (keratinocytes); “harden” = cornified

Stratum corneum = heavily keratinized surface layer of epidermis (only in tetrapods)

  • Dermis usually more complex(= conn. tissue)

Stratum laxum = more superficial & irregular (only in gnathostomes)

Stratum compactum = deep & more ordered

vert craniate epidermis devel
Vert./Craniate Epidermis Devel.
  • Epidermis begins as a simple epithelium
  • Then forms two-layers.

Periderm – superficial

Basal layer (stratum basale) – deep; contacts basement memb.; forms adult epidermis.

dermis devel
Dermis Devel.
  • First dermatome cells make layered collagen and form fibroblasts under the epidermal basement membrane = stratum compactum(contiguous with the reticular lamina)
  • The in gnathostomes, the stratum compactum separates from the reticular lamina of the basement membrane (delaminates).
  • The stratum laxum forms between the stratum compactum & the reticular lamina of the epidermis after delamination.
human integument
Human Integument

Stratified keratinous epidermis, strata laxum and compactum in dermis

Hair = keratinous epidermal outgrowth (with dermal pulp cavity)

Sweat glands = coiled, produce watery sweat for cooling or traction.

Sebaceous glands = associated with hair follicles, produce sebum.

Mammary glands = produce milk (similar to sweat & sebaceous glands)

human integument9
Human Integument

Stratum

corneum

Epidermis

Hair

Sebaceous

gland

Dermis

Sweat

gland

human mammary ridge and mammary glands
Human Mammary Ridge and Mammary Glands

Mammary glands form regionally along mammary ridge in all therian mammals (location and number vary).

human mammary development
Human Mammary Development

Mammary Glands, single pair with nipples, fat and glandular tissue.

Supernumary (ectopic) nipples form along developmental “milk” line.

human integument13
Human Integument

Hair on all surfaces EXCEPT:

palms of hands, soles of feet, lips, nipples, penis, and clitoris

Sebaceous glands on all surfaces EXCEPT:

palms of hands and soles of feet

Sebaceous glands associated with hair follicle (except on lips, nipples, penis, and clitoris).

human skin problems disease
Human Skin Problems/Disease

Pimples form when a hair follicle is blocked and sebum builds up.

Skin Cancer

most common – basal cell carcinoma

most dangerous - melanoma

integumentary bones scales
Integumentary Bones/Scales
  • Dermal bones = bone formed in the deep dermis around collagen by osteoblasts. e.g., some skull bones
  • Dermal scale = bone formed in more superficial dermis around collagen by osteoblasts. (may have epidermal contributions) e.g., some “fish” scales
  • Epidermal scale = proteinaceous, formed by dead keratinocytes in the epidermis. e.g., reptile scales
dermal bony scales
Dermal (Bony) Scales
  • Epidermis can contribute enamel.

Enamel = acellular CaPO4, hardest vertebrate produced substance.

  • Dermis can contribute 3 kinds of bone.
  • Dentin(e) = acellular, hard bone; under the epidermis
  • Dermal Vascular Bone = cellular & vascularized/“spongy”; in stratum laxum
  • Dermal Lamellar Bone = cellular or acellular, formed in flat layers; in stratum laxum or stratum compactum
dermal scales

Enamel

Dentine

Epidermal

Acellular

Dermal

Cellular

Acellular or Cellular

Vascular Bone

Lamellar Bone

Dermal Scales
integumentary glands
Integumentary Glands

Epidermal; secrete to skin surface

  • Unicellular Glands - Common in non-tetrapod epidermis; rare in tetrapods; usually produce mucus.
  • Multicellular Glands - Rare in non-tetrapod epidermis; common in tetrapods

(Exception: Multicellular slime glands in hagfishes)

  • Mucus “Cuticle” – Mucus layer covering some amphibians and all non-tetrapods; protects from abrasion and pathogens
hagfish lampreys
Hagfish & Lampreys
  • Keratinous (epidermal) “teeth”
  • No dermal or epidermal scales.
petromyzontid integument

Epidermis

Basal layer

Dermis

(stratum

compactum)

Basal lamina

Petromyzontid Integument

Ammocoete larva

placoid scales

Enamel

Dentin

Pulp

cavity

Placoid Scales
  • Synapomorphy of chondrichthyans

Enamel (superficially), Dentin (deep)

  • Scale “erupts” from epidermis.
  • Central dermal pulp cavity.
ganoid scales
Ganoid Scales
  • Found in reedfishes, gars, and fossil sturgeon and bowfin

Enamel (superficially), Lamellar bone (deep), lack a pulp cavity

  • Scale “erupts” from epidermis.
teleost scales
Teleost Scales
  • Lamellar bone ONLY
  • Scale covered by epidermis.
  • Cycloid or Ctenoid (with projections)
craniata
Craniata

Actinopterygii

Chondrichthys

amphibians

coelacanths

Mammalia

lungfishes

lampreys

hagfishes

Reptilia

stratified epidermis

subphylum vertebrata
Subphylum Vertebrata

Actinopterygii

Chondrichthys

coelacanths

amphibians

lungfishes

Mammalia

hagfishes

lampreys

Reptilia

ganoid

scales

dermal

scales

lost

placoid

scales

dermal bone; dermal stratum laxum

class actinopterygii
Class Actinopterygii

sturgeons &

paddlefishes

Amia (the bowfin)

reedfishes

TELEOSTS

gars

cycloid or

ctenoid

scales

(enamel lost)

ganoid scales

tetrapod integument
Tetrapod Integument
  • Stratum corneum = superficial layer of dead keratinocytes (outer epidermis)

prevents water loss; protects

- thin, underlies mucous layer in lissamphibians.

- thick, “replaces” mucous layer in amniotes.

lissamphibian integument

Stratum

corneum

(thin)

Epidermis

Dermis

Mucous gland

Poison gland

Lissamphibian Integument
  • Multicellular mucous glands
  • Multicellular poison glands
amniote integument
Amniote Integument
  • Thick stratum corneum(no mucus)- Primary barrier to water loss and infection.
  • Epidermal derivatives made of keratin: epidermal scales, hair, feathers
reptile integument
Reptile Integument
  • Epidermal scales = thickened stratum corneum separated by thinner areas of stratum corneum
  • can be “tiled” or overlapping.
avian reptile integument
Avian Reptile Integument
  • Epidermal scales on legs & feet
  • Feathers = modified epidermal scales (with dermal pulp cavity)
  • Few multicellular glands
mammalian integument
Mammalian Integument
  • Epidermalscales LOST
  • Hair = keratinous epidermal outgrowth (with dermal pulp cavity)
  • Sweat glands = coiled, produce watery sweat for cooling or traction. (Scent glands) = modified sweat glands
  • Sebaceous glands = associated with hair follicles, produce sebum.
  • These form by sinking of regions of epidermis into the dermis.
mammalian integument34

Stratum

corneum

Epidermis

Hair

Sebaceous

gland

Dermis

Sweat

gland

Mammalian Integument
mammalian integument36

Teat

Nipple

cistern

Monotremes lack nipples.

Mammalian Integument
  • Mammary glands = produce milk for nourishment of young...

derived from sweat and/or sebaceous glands.

vertebrate miscellaneous
Vertebrate Miscellaneous
  • Keratinous claws, nails, or hooves (Tetrapoda)
  • Keratinous beaks (Aves & Testudinea)
  • Shell plates (Testudinea & armadillos) = dermal bone & keratinous sheets
  • Horns (various amniotes) = dermal bone & keratinous sheath
  • Antlers (cervid mammals) = dermal bone (shed yearly)
subphylum vertebrata41
Subphylum Vertebrata

Actinopterygii

Chondrichthys

coelacanths

amphibians

lungfishes

Mammalia

hagfishes

lampreys

Reptilia

*

thick

stratum

corneum,

mucus

layer lost

stratum

corneum

* epidermal scales of beta keratin

amniota

lizards & snakes

crocodilians

montremes

marsupials

eutherians

turtles

birds

Amniota

beak,

shell

plates

nipples

hair;

sweat, sebaceous,

& mammary glands

feathers,

beak

epidermal

scales of beta keratin

teeth
Teeth
  • Teeth formed by the epidermis & dermis.
  • Thought to be derivatives of “placoid” scales around mouth.
  • Epidermis contributes enamel.
  • Neural crest cells in dermis contribute dentin and constitutes some of the pulp cavity.
tooth development
Tooth Development
  • Enamel organ = epidermis that sinks into dermis, ameloblasts make enamel.
  • Dermal papilla = dermis surrounded by enamel organ, odontoblasts make dentine.

- primarily of neural crest cells.

chondrichthyan teeth

developing

teeth

teeth in

use

Chondrichthyan Teeth
  • Revolver Dentition = teeth develop further back in the mouth and as they mature move to the crest of the bone.

Eventually fall out.

tooth terms
Tooth Terms
  • Homodont = all teeth similar.
  • Heterodont = teeth that differ.
  • Polyphyodont = teeth replaced continually throughout life.
  • Diphyodont = teeth replaced once in life (2 sets of teeth). - Mammals
subphylum vertebrata47
Subphylum Vertebrata

Actinopterygii

Chondrichthys

coelacanths

amphibians

lungfishes

Mammalia

hagfishes

lampreys

Reptilia

revolver

dentition

heterodont,

diphyodont

teeth

mammalian teeth
Mammalian Teeth

Anterior to Posterior

  • Incisors = flattened teeth, 1 cusp.
  • Canines = conical teeth, 1 cusp.
  • Premolars = multicusped teeth, present in both first and second sets of teeth.
  • Molars = multicusped teeth, present only in second set of teeth.
mammalian teeth49
Mammalian Teeth
  • Diastema = space between teeth.
  • Dental Formula = Count of tooth types in one half of a mammal jaws.

Incisors-canines-premolars-molars

upper first, lower jaw second.

Human = 2-1-2-3 / 2-1-2-3

Dog = 3-1-4-2 / 3-1-4-3

Mule deer = 0-0-3-3 / 3-1-3-3

human teeth
Human Teeth

2 - 1 - 2 - 3