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Skeletal System - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Skeletal System
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  1. Skeletal System • Prepared by: • Zaida I. Usop • Ronel Ybanez • Tula, Johainie • Prensepi

  2. Function of the Skeletal System • Support- framework that supports body and cradles its soft organs • Protection- for delicate organs, heart, lungs, brain • Movement- bones act as levers for muscles • Mineral storage- calcium & phosphate • Blood cell formation- hematopoiesis

  3. Types of Bones • Long Bones- metacarples, metatarsals, phelangies, humerus, ulna, radius, tibia, fibula • Short Bones- carpals, tarsals • Flat Bones- rib, scapula, skull, sternum • Irregular Bones- vertebrae, some facial bones • Sesamoid- patella

  4. Bone Classification

  5. Anatomy of a Long Bone spongy bone Proximal epiphysis compact bone Endosteum diaphysis epiphyseal line yellow marrow Sharpey’s fibers Distal epiphysis periosteum hyaline cartilage

  6. Axial Skeleton

  7. Appendicular Skeleton

  8. Axial Skeleton

  9. Axial Skeleton

  10. Axial Skeleton Posterior View

  11. Sinal Cavities Frontal Sinus Ethmoid Sinus Sphenoid Sinus Maxillary Sinus • Warm and moisten air • Lighten the skull • Enhance voice resonance

  12. Axial Skeleton The Vertebral Column Cervical Vertebrae(7) Thoracic Vertebrae(12) Lumbar Vertberae(5) Sacrum Coccyx

  13. Cervical Vertebrae

  14. Axial Skeleton The Thoracic Cage Sternum True Ribs(7) False Ribs(3) Floating Ribs(2)

  15. Axial Skeleton Sacrum & Coccyx

  16. Appendicular Skeleton Bones of the Pectoral Girdle

  17. Appendicular Skeleton Humerus Ulna Radius 8 Carpals 5 Metacarpals 14 Phalanges

  18. Humorus

  19. Ulna & Radius

  20. Hand Bones

  21. Appendicular Skeleton Pelvis

  22. Appendicular Skeleton Pelvis (lateral view) Ilium Acetabulum Obturator foramen Pubis Ischium Ischium

  23. Male vs Female Pelvis Female Pelvic Girdle Male Pelvic Girdle

  24. Appendicular Skeleton The Lower Limb (Legs) Femur Patella Tibia Fibula 7 Tarsals 5 Metatarsals 14 Phalanges

  25. Femur

  26. Patella

  27. Tibia & Fibula

  28. Foot phelangies metatarsals tarsals tarsals metatarsals phelangies

  29. Fetal Skull

  30. suture pubis symphisis Fibrous Joints Immovable Joints (synarthrosis)

  31. Cartilagenous Joints Slightly Movable Joint (ampharthrosis)

  32. pelvis ligaments femur Synovial Joints (diarthrosis)- freely moveable

  33. joint capsule pelvis hyaline cartilage synovial cavity femur Synovial Joints

  34. Knee Joint

  35. Synovial Joint Movement Extension Rotation Flexion Adduction Abduction

  36. Fetal Skeleton 275 bones12 weeks (6-9 inches long)

  37. Fetus: 1st 2 months Endochondral Ossification 2o ossification center bone cartilage calcified cartilage Just before birth epiphyseal line epiphyseal plate Childhood Adult

  38. Bone cells that aid in remodeling Builds new bone Osteoblast Mature bone cell Osteocyte Osteoclast Eats bone

  39. Bone Repair: • Electrical stimulation of the fracture site: • Increases speed and completeness of healing • The e- stimulation inhibits PTH and slow osteoclasts down from reabsorbing bone • 2. Ultrasound treatment: • Daily treatments reduce healing time of broken bones by 25-35% • 3. Free vascular fibular graft technique: • Transplant fibula in arm • Gives good blood supply not available in other treatments • 4. Bone substitutes: • Crushed bone from cadaver- but risk of HIV and hepatitis • Sea bone- coral • Artificial bone- ceramic

  40. Repair of Fractures hematoma callus bony callus bone remodeling

  41. Diseases of the Skeletal System: • Osteoporosis- bone reabsorption outpaces bone deposit; bones become lighter and fracture easier • Factors: • age, gender (more in women) • estrogen and testosterone decrease • insufficient exercise (or too much) • diet poor in Ca++ and protein • abnormal vitamin D receptors • smoking

  42. 29 40 84 92 Osteoporosis

  43. Diseases of the Skeletal System: Rickets- vitamin D deficiency Osteomalacia- soft bones, inadequate mineralization in bones, lack of vitamin D Pagets Disease- spotty weakening in the bones, excessive and abnormal bone remodeling Rheumatoid arthritis- autoimmune reaction

  44. INQUIRY • What is a fontanel? • How many bones in the adult skeleton? • What is the difference between the appendicular and axial skeleton? • What is a meniscus? • Demonstrate adduction. • Weight bearing vertebrae are called? • What does an osteoclast do? • Extra Credit: 1-page reaction paper on bipedalism and problems associated with our human frame. Attach article. Turn in 1-week from today. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DSHoonPWwXQ