Pair talk • Easy to organise • Ideal for promoting high levels of participation • Ideal for quick-fire reflection and review
Pairs to fours • Pupils work together in pairs e.g. friendship, boy-girl • Each pair joins up to make four • Quick and easy to organise • Good for explaining and comparing ideas
Listening triads • Pupils work in groups of three • Roles are allocated: speaker, questioner and recorder Speaker: explains or comments on an issue Questioner: prompts and seeks clarification Recorder: makes notes and reports at end of discussion
Envoys • Once groups have carried out a task, one person from each group is selected as an envoy. • The envoy moves to a new group to explain and summarise, and to find out what the new group thought, decided or achieved. • The envoy then returns to the original group and feeds back. • This is an effective way of avoiding repetitive ‘reporting back’ sessions.
Snowball • Pairs discuss an issue or brainstorm some initial ideas. • Pairs double to fours and continue the process and prioritise the list. • Fours double to eights in order to compare ideas and to sort out the best or to agree on a course of action. • Finally, the whole class is drawn together and spokesperson for each group of eight feeds back ideas. • A useful strategy to promote more public discussion and debate.
Rainbow groups • Children work in a small group (four) to discuss an issue or brainstorm some initial ideas. • After discussion pupils in each group are given a number, playing card or colour. • Pupils from all groups with the same colour, playing card or number join up to make new groups. • The new groups contain representatives from each original group. • In their new groups pupils report back on their original group’s work. • Groups can perhaps begin to work on a new combined task.
Jigsaw • Divide your topic into different areas for research purposes. • In home groups of four or five, pupils are allocated a section each. • They then regroup into expert groups. • The expert groups work together on their allocated section before returning to their home group to report back on their areas of expertise. • The home group is then set a task which requires the pupils to use the different areas of expertise for a joint outcome. • Although this strategy involves advance planning, it is a very effective strategy for ensuring participation of all.
Spokesperson • Each group appoints a spokesperson. • The spokesperson reports to class for the whole group. AVOIDINGREPETITION • One group gives a full feedback, and others offer additional points only if they have not been covered. • Each group is asked in turn to offer one new point until every group passes.
Carousel • Children work in small groups to generate several different ideas. • By rotating around each different station they can add their ideas, looking to add something different each time. • When they return to their original station they will realise that many more ideas have been generated • Groups can then review their new lists and discuss the different suggestions.
Eliciting the features of argument Persuasive language Reasons What makes a good argument? Evidence To support your ideas Facts
Using positive language even if you disagree Waiting to speak Co-operation Listening Good body language What makes good group work? Sharing your opinions Paying full attention Looking at the speaker, nodding, smiling Good collaboration
Argument prompts • Why do you think that? • What is your reason for that? • Can you think of another argument for your view? • Can you think of an argument against your view? • How do you know? • What is your evidence? • Is there another argument for what you believe?
Content of argument My idea is… The evidence to support my idea is… This evidence supports my idea because… Arguments against my idea are… I would convince someone who doesn’t believe me by…
Extended argument • There is a lot of discussion about whether… • The people who agree with this idea claim that… • They also argue that… • A further point they make is… • However, there are also strong arguments or evidence against this view. They believe that… • Furthermore they claim that… • After looking at different points of view and the evidence I think that…