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University of Palestine Faculty of Applied Engineering and Urban Planning Dept. of Architecture Summer Semester 2009 -2010 Introduction to Interior Design ( EAGD 3217 ) Lecture 2 Interior Design – Notion (cont.) and History Dr. Nihad Almughany 1
1- REVIEW OF THE LAST LECTURE • INTERIOR DESIGN – NOTION • ARCHITECTURE, INTERIOR DESIGN AND DÉCOR – COMPARISON. • INTERIOR DESIGN PROFESSION. • RELATIONSHIP TO OTHER FIELDS.
2- SKILLES REQUIRED • Wide vision open minded. • Flexible. • Creative. • Able to accept new ideas. • Cooperative. • Have an extended and varied knowledge. 3
3- REQUIRED KNOWLEDGE • Architectural design principles. • Building materials ( nature, specifications, use, cost ). • Colors ( theory, effects, tones, …ect ). • Lighting. • Plants ( types, arrangements ) . • Furniture. • Decoration. • Arts • History and theories of Architecture and Interior design 4
4- ELEMENTS OF INTERIOR SPACES • Floors. • Walls. • Ceilings. • Lighting. • Furniture. • Ornaments ( gypsum, wood and other materials). • Joinery , iron and aluminum works. • Sanitary, acoustics and mechanical systems. • Artistic sculptures and works. • Curtains. • Plants. 5
5- MEANS OF ORGANIZATION OF INTERIOR SPACES • Unity • Balance • Color • Texture • Pattern • Rhythm • Regularity & Hierarchy • Harmony • Scale • Proportion • Form & Character 6
6- HISTORY OF INTERIOR DESIGN • The history of interior design was shaped by artistic, economic, and technological revolutions throughout history. • The history of interior design stretches back to ancient times; as long as there have been homes to live in, elements of interior design have existed in some rudimentary form. • However, the major developments in the history of interior design were far apart and resulted in large changes almost at once. • The following is a brief history of interior design in the following eras: • - Ancient times • - Renaissance • - Industrial Revolution • - Art Nouveau • - Modern movement 7 7
6.1- ANCIENT TIMES: 8 8 In ancient times, there is evidence that interior design was important to the Egyptians and Romans. Of course, at this point in the history of interior design, it was restricted to the very wealthy. The Egyptians, lavishly decorated tombs for the pharaohs, which were designed both as a final resting place and to have comforts for the pharaoh in the next life. At the homes of Egyptians from the very earliest time of their civilization, you would be struck with the type of furnishings they used, and even the ceilings as well as columns were very elaborate, which only shows that the history of interior design goes a long way back in time.
6.1- ANCIENT TIMES: From the Romans, we have evidence that they carefully planned their rooms around the way that they would be used, which is a key part of modern interior design. Wealthy Romans, for instance, would have separate living rooms for summer and winter seasons, designed based on optimal comfort during the warm and cold months. Both the Romans an the Egyptians, of course, did take some care to participate in interior decorating as well, another important feature in interior design.
6.1- ANCIENT TIMES: 11 Home decorating already then reflected the population's values, philosophy and love of beauty and comfort. The amazing frescoes and incredibly refined mosaics used to decorate the living quarters of the wealthy are still visible to date in the ruins of the ancient Roman homes . Medieval towns prospered with commerce, agriculture and mining, and many architectural jewels had been constructed. Along side the Romanesque cathedrals and churches there were the town halls, the government palaces and the castles of the noble families. The nobles who inhabited these castles were sponsors of decorative art forms, including of frescoes and paintings, carved decorations and sculpted furniture, marble and mosaic inlay, precious textiles, porcelain and glassware, and fine jewelry.
6.2- THE RENAISSANCE 13 13 The next major development in the history of interior design came in the Italian Renaissance, when all arts experienced a surge in popularity, with wealthy patrons giving money to support the arts. It was at this time that interior decorating and interior design began to resemble what it came to be in later years in the history of interior design. Still at this point in the history of interior design, such things were well out of reach of the average person.
6.3- THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION (The start of Modern Movement ): 18 18 • The change in the history of interior design that made it accessible to the common man was the Industrial Revolution. Because : • It made cheaper goods possible for home decoration . • created an economic revolution as middle-class families soon had extra money to put towards things such as interior design. • This is the time where interior design magazines were developed, and specialization had developed, now its own industry by the start of the 21st century. • Mass production helped to produce interior elements faster and cheaper.
6.4- ART NOUVEAUE 19 19 An artistic movement at the start of the 20th Century that reacted against industrial mass production and used new artistic designs adopted mostly from nature, using modern materials.
6.4- ART NOUVEAUE Charles Rennie Mackintosh: In Glasgow, Scotland, work related to Art Nouveau was produced for a short time by a few designers led by Charles Rennie Mackintosh (1868-1928). Mackintosh developed furniture designs that most often used simple, geometric forms, but then introduced exaggerated proportions, extreme high chair backs, and white or black paint finishes with decorative details in violet silver, or gold.
6.4- ART NOUVEAUE 24 24 Antoni Gaudi In Barcelona, Spain, although there is a variety of work in the Art Nouveau style, the dominant figure of Antoni Gaudi (1852-1926) stands out as the inventor of a highly personal vocabulary of flowing curves and unusual decorative details. Remarkable interiors. Paneled doors are studded with small mirrors of irregular shape; ceilings are of plaster in swirling curved forms. Gaudi developed fantastic curving, sometimes bone-like, wiry forms for furniture designed to be custom made by skilled craftsmen for specific projects. The Guell Park (1905-14) and unfinished Sagrada Familia church (1903-26) exhibit Gaudi's fantastic and highly personal stylistic vocabulary on a major scale.
6.4- ART NOUVEAUE 28 28 Gerrit Rietveld: The known De Stijl ("the style") work was produced by Rietveld (1888-1964), this style is characterized by rectilinear block made up of complex, interpenetrating planes of wall, roof, and projecting decks, with voids filled by glass in metal sash. Built-in and movable furniture of Rietveld's design is geometric and abstract in concept. Only primary colors and black are introduced within the generally white and gray tones of most surfaces.
6.5- THE MODERN MOVEMENT • Since the start of the 20th Century there were a modern development ( physical and intellectual) in both architecture and interior design. Modernity took several shapes but they in general share the following ideas : • Avoid ornaments. • Simplicity in design and construction. • Use of colors. • Use of modern materials and techniques. • Free space. • Complementarily between architecture, arts and industry. • Interior design has started to be familiar by the public. • Interior design curriculums, books and magazines have emerged and begun well known. 31 31
6- CONCLUSION • Interior designer needs special requirements and knowledge to be able to succeed in the profession. • Interior design requires some means of organization to arrange interior spaces and interior elements. • The history of interior design goes back to ancient times especially during the Egyptian and Roman eras. • Interior design had developed through different historic ages and influenced by the prevailing conditions of different eras. • The industrial revolution had excreted the potentials for the modern movement in interior design in two terms: • Interior design started to be familiar by the public especially middle classes instead of being restricted to higher classes. • The appearance of modern materials and modern techniques. • The mass production instead of handicrafts. 34