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Dr. Nihad Almughany

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  1. University of Palestine Faculty of Applied Engineering and Urban Planning Dept. of Architecture DESIGN PRINCIPLES ( EAGD 2201) Principles of Architectural Design Dr. Nihad Almughany Dr. Nihad Almughany- Design Principles- 2nd sem. 2009

  2. AIMS • This lecture aims to : • Teach the students the basis of architecture: definition, types, elements and meaning. • To soundly set up the architectural students . • To motivate the creative thinking of the students. • To highlight the importance of architectural design and to know its process. Dr. Nihad Almughany- Design Principles- 2nd sem. 2009

  3. Content • Design Principles – terminology • Design Levels. • Fields of Architectural Design. • Building Elements. • Architectural Creativity. • Conditions Should be Available in Buildings. • Stages of Architectural Design. • Factors affecting Architectural Design. Dr. Nihad Almughany- Design Principles- 2nd sem. 2009

  4. DESIGN PRINCIPLES - Terminology • Design principles : • Basis of architectural design: design concept, principles, criteria and methodology. • Concept : Philosophy of design • Principles : standards and basis • Criteria : characteristics • Methodology : steps and methods of design based on objective methods rather than feelings and arts . Dr. Nihad Almughany- Design Principles- 2nd sem. 2009

  5. Design levels: Dr. Nihad Almughany- Design Principles- 2nd sem. 2009

  6. FIELDS OF ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN (BUILDING TYPES ) : • Residential buildings : individual, detached, housing projects …etc • Work buildings : institutional, administrative, commercial, industrial, health, educational, services • Transportation buildings : stations, airports, cross borders ..etc. • Sports buildings : playgrounds, stadiums, …etc. Dr. Nihad Almughany- Design Principles- 2nd sem. 2009

  7. * FIELDS OF ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN ( BUILDING TYPES ( cont.): • Recreational buildings: clubs, theatres, casinos, ..etc. • Worship buildings: mosques, churches, …etc. • Monumental buildings: triumphal vault, tombs, sculptures, ...etc • Military buildings: camps, fortresses, ..etc. • Civil structures: storages, bridges, water tanks,…etc • Interior design and exterior design . Dr. Nihad Almughany- Design Principles- 2nd sem. 2009

  8. BUILDING ELEMENTS: • BUILDING ELEMENTS: • Functional elements: rooms and functional spaces • Circulation elements : approach, walks, links between buildings, colonnades, porch, portico, gallery, entrance hall, lobby, corridor, stairs, lefts, escalators, …etc. • Service elements : service court, servants and guards rooms, laundry, garages, storages. • Ventilation elements : open court, inner court, balconies, windows, ventilation shaft. Dr. Nihad Almughany- Design Principles- 2nd sem. 2009

  9. BUILDING ELEMENTS ( cont. ): • Structural elements :walls, foundations, columns, slabs, domes, vaults, trusses, shells, …etc. • Beauty elements : external surfaces, fences, roofs, interiors, gardens, …etc. • Safety elements : Protection from climate (external surfaces, sheds) , protection from seeing ( curtains, walls trees ), protection from dangers ( fire escape, shelters, doors ) * NOTE : One building element could play many functions Dr. Nihad Almughany- Design Principles- 2nd sem. 2009

  10. CREATIVITY: • ARCHITECTURAL CREATIVITY : • Creativity means thinking differently and producing unusual and creative ideas and solutions for architectural problems. • Creative solutions could be in all or some of building process Design, Construction or Operation. Dr. Nihad Almughany- Design Principles- 2nd sem. 2009

  11. CONDITIONS SHOULD BE AVAILABLE IN BUILDINGS: • CONDITIONS SHOULD BE AVAILABLE IN BUILDINGS: • First : Utility ( Functionalism ):المنفعة • Measures and dimensions of spaces and furniture. • Sun and Ventilation. • Functional relationships . • Lighting . • Relationship with the surroundings . • Circulation. Dr. Nihad Almughany- Design Principles- 2nd sem. 2009

  12. CONDITIONS SHOULD BE AVAILABLE IN BUILDINGS: • Second : Firmness ( Strength ):المتانة • Building loads • Wind pressure. • Vibrations. • Earthquakes. • Wear and tear. • Decay. • Building materials. • Building and material specifications. Dr. Nihad Almughany- Design Principles- 2nd sem. 2009

  13. CONDITIONS SHOULD BE AVAILABLE IN BUILDINGS: • Third : Beauty :الجمال • Form . • Composition. • Use of glorious materials. • Texture. • Colors. • Ornaments and decoration. • Scale and proportions. Dr. Nihad Almughany- Design Principles- 2nd sem. 2009

  14. CONDITIONS SHOULD BE AVAILABLE IN BUILDINGS: • Fourth : Economy • Simplicity. • Accurate spaces • Suitable materials • Building shape and form • Construction techniques. • Efficiency . • Speed. Dr. Nihad Almughany- Design Principles- 2nd sem. 2009

  15. STAGES OF ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN : • STAGES OF ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN (according to the 1st conference of design methods, Royal Collage – London): • ANALYSIS • SYNTHESIS • EVALUATION Dr. Nihad Almughany- Design Principles- 2nd sem. 2009

  16. STAGES OF ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN ( according to Dennis Thornley Manchester 1962 ): • Accumulation of data • General concept • Development of form into final scheme • Presentation of final scheme Dr. Nihad Almughany- Design Principles- 2nd sem. 2009

  17. STAGES OF ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN ( according to RIBA ): Dr. Nihad Almughany- Design Principles- 2nd sem. 2009

  18. STAGES OF ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN ( according to Marcus & Meaver 1970 ): Dr. Nihad Almughany- Design Principles- 2nd sem. 2009

  19. STAGES OF ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN: • Assimilation • Analytical studies ( subject, program, site ) • Site visit ( site investigation- surroundings ). • Elementary design (depends on the studies done, concept ). • Discussion with the owner and owner feed in. • Design Development • Architectural drawings . Dr. Nihad Almughany- Design Principles- 2nd sem. 2009

  20. FACTORS AFFECTING ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN: • FACTORS AFFECTING ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN: • Physical Factors: geographical, geological, climatic. • Social , cultural and Civic Factors: social, religious, historical. • Science and technology: materials, technology, structural analysis. • Economy: Dr. Nihad Almughany- Design Principles- 2nd sem. 2009

  21. Factors affecting the design of a window Dr. Nihad Almughany- Design Principles- 2nd sem. 2009

  22. Conclusion * Architecture is a very rich field and specialization that contributes in building the culture of nations. • There are rules and conditions should be available in architectural works to guarantee that these works are functional, durable, beautiful and economic. • Architectural design is a very important field and there are specific steps that the design process should pass through. Dr. Nihad Almughany- Design Principles- 2nd sem. 2009

  23. References • Charles Ching, Architecture : Form, Space and Order. • د ياسر المحجوب- مقدمة في التصميم المعماري . • د عبد الباقي ابراهيم – بناء الفكر المعماري. Dr. Nihad Almughany- Design Principles- 2nd sem. 2009