Shuler 3rd Period Saturn Jordan Moore, Hannah Yoo, Juliana Sung Bennett Tatgenhorst By:
About Saturn • Saturn is a Jovian planet • Basic Properties/ Statistics • Tilt - 26.73° • Direction of rotation on its axis - counterclockwise • Length of Day - 0.444 earth days, or 10.656 hours • Length of Year - 29.447 earth years • How far away from the sun - perihelion = 10.116 AU, aphelion = 9.048 AU • Night/Day Average Temperatures - The average temperature of Saturn is −185 °C, but it can get as hot as -122°C. Temperatures between day and night do not differ greatly • Mass Compared to Earth - Saturn is 95 times the mass of Earth • Density Compared to earth - The density of Saturn is 0.687 g/cm3 which is 0.125 x Earth’s • General Structure & Composition - Saturn is a gas giant, but the core is more dense than earth
Saturn’s Atmosphere • Atmosphere: Saturn has an atmosphere and is composed of 96.3% molecular hydrogen and 3.25% helium. It contains trace amounts ofammonia, acetylene, ethane, propane, phosphine, and methane.
Saturn’s Rings There are billions of rings particles in the entire ring system. The ring particle sizes range from tiny, dust-sized icy grains to a few particles as large as mountains. Other particles are too tiny to see, but they create propeller-shaped objects in the rings that let us know they are there. The rings are believed to be pieces of comets, asteroids, or shattered moons that broke up before they reached the planet. Each ring orbits at a different speed around the planet.
Surface Texture • Surface Textures: Saturn lacks a definite surface. The upper clouds are composed of ammonia crystals, while the lower level clouds appear to consist of either ammonium hydrosulfide (NH4SH) or water. Saturn's atmosphere exhibits a banded pattern similar to Jupiter's with ammonia ice clouds. The clouds consist of many layers with vary with depth and increasing pressure. The layers consist of water ice clouds on top of a band of ammonium hydrosulfide ice above a region of water droplets with ammonia in aqueous solution. At the north pole, the clouds swirl in a hexagonal pattern, while in the south pole, they are hurricane-like with a jet stream.
Saturn’s Moons The dozens of icy moons orbiting Saturn vary drastically in shape, size, surface age and origin. Some of these worlds have hard, rough surfaces, while others are porous bodies coated in a fine blanket of icy particles. All have greater or smaller numbers of craters, and many have ridges and valleys. • Titan is the second largest moon in the solar system with a earth-like atmosphere and landscape. Titan is larger than the planet Mercury. • Enceladus emits jets of gas and dust . It may harbor liquid water under its south-pole region Saturn has 62 moons with confirmed orbits. 53 of which have names and 13 which have diameters larger than 50 kilometers. Astronomers continue to find new small moons orbiting Saturn, using both ground-based observatories and Cassini's own imaging cameras.
Discovery • Discovery- Saturn is large and has been visible to the naked eye from earth since ancient times, so no specific person can be credited with discovering Saturn.
Space Probe Cassini Mission Cassini was designed to explore the Saturnian system from orbit: the planet and its atmosphere, rings and magnetosphere, and its moons, particularly Titan and the icy satellites. After successfully completing the first in-depth, up-close study of Saturn and its realm from orbit, Cassini is on an extended mission to follow up on the many discoveries made during its primary 4-year mission. Among the most surprising discoveries were geysers erupting on Enceladus and the dynamic effects of it and other moons on Saturn's rings. Cassini's observations of Saturn's largest moon, Titan, have given scientists a glimpse of what our home planet might have been like before life evolved on Earth.
Work Cited • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saturn • http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/planets/profile.cfm?Object=Saturn&Display=Facts&System=Metric • http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/planets/profile.cfm?Object=Saturn&Display=Rings • http://www.universetoday.com/33061/jovian-planets/ • http://saturn.jpl.nasa.gov/science/moons/