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Role of Oil in Southwest Asia
Oil Discovered! Oil was first discovered in Persia (Iran) in 1908. In 1927, oil was struck in Kirkuk, Iraq.
What is a non-renewable resource? A non-renewable resource is a resource that takes so long to form that it can’t be replaced. Oil, which takes millions of years to form, is just such a resource.
What is a fossil fuel? Oil and natural gas are fossil fuels. Fossil fuels were created when plants and animals that lived centuries ago decayed underground.
What are oil reserves? Oil reserves refer to oil that has been discovered but remains unused in the ground.
Southwest Asia and Oil Southwest Asia has been transformed by oil. 1. This region has the world’s largest known oil reserves. 2. More than half of the world’s proven crude oil reserves lie under Southwest Asia. 3. There are also large reserves of natural gas.
…and new There are many oil rigs around the Middle East.
1. Saudi Arabia (the largest country in Southwest Asia) has approximately 1/4 of the world’s known oil reserves. 2. Kuwait (a small country) has 1/10 of the world’s oil reserves.
Southwest Asia and Oil Most of the world’s industrial nations depend on a steady supply of oil and natural gas.
Southwest Asia and Oil These industrial countries depend on these fuels to meet their energy needs: • transportation (gasoline and oil) • electricity depends on oil and natural gas to run power plants • plastics • medicines
Southwest Asia and Oil Oil money has been used to better the lives of the people in Southwest Asia. 1. Roads have been paved and modern buildings have been built 2. Improved medical care has helped people to live longer.
Southwest Asia and Oil Oil has made many people is Southwest Asia better off. 1. Life expectancy has increased by 15 years over the last 30 years. 2. Infant mortality rate (number of babies that die in their first year) has fallen.
Oil Has Not Improved Life for All 1. Yemen is one of the 20 poorest countries in the world (low oil reserves and large population). 2. Iraq has the second largest oil reserve but a low HDI. a. Saddam Hussein used oil money to build an army. b. Buying weapons and fighting wars has used up their money.
Poor and Rich Per Capita GDP does not tell the whole story. Per capita GDP is an average wealth with some people extremely wealthy and others very poor.
Human Development Index (HDI) looks at the per capita GDP and factors like life expectancy and education. 1. Bahrain has the highest HDI, using its wealth to educate its population. 2. Bahrain provides good health care which has contributed to its low infant mortality rate.
The Price and Flow of Oil Oil-Exporting Countries work to control the price of oil. 1. OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) was established in 1960 to control the supply and income of oil producing countries.
Summary • Much of the world’s oil is under Southwest Asia. • Oil reserves are not distributed evenly among the region’s countries. • The wealth from oil sales is not evenly distributed among the citizens of the countries in Southwest Asia.