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Europeans Crossing the Atlantic

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  1. Europeans Crossing the Atlantic Massachusetts Bay Colony, Virginia and North American Settlement

  2. Context • 1492: Columbian Encounter • 1519: Spanish Conquest of Aztecs • 1533: Spanish Conquest of Incans • 1580s: Founding of Roanoke in Current Virginia (colony did not survive) • 1607: Founding of Virginia (Jamestown) • 1620: Founding of Plymouth Colony (current Massachusetts)

  3. Context, continued • 1626: Founding of New Amsterdam (Dutch), later New York, 1664 (English) • 1630: Founding of Massachusetts Bay Colony (Boston) • 1663: Carolina Colony Founded • 1681: Pennsylvania Founded

  4. Massachusetts Bay Family migrations Religious consensus Village or Town settlement structure Community centered governance ***NOT DEMOCRATIC*** Virginia “Adventurer” migration in search of riches Men predominated in colony A volatile mixture of rich and poor men Little interest in permanent settlement or civic activity ***NOT DEMOCRATIC*** Models of Development

  5. Leaders: John Winthrop and John Smith Winthrop: Massachusetts Smith: Virginia

  6. John Winthrop (1587-1649) • Governor of Massachusetts Bay colony for most of its first twenty years. • “Middle Class” background in England. • Devout Puritan • Goal was to build a "City on a Hill" as a model for world. • Arrived in the summer of 1630, with eleven vessels, more than 1,000 passengers. • 20,000 more migrated in next decade.

  7. John Smith (1580-1631) • Long career as adventurer, writer, and publicist. • Saw military action in France, the Mediterranean, Hungary • 1602: Captured and sold as a slave to a Turk, escaped, returned to England, ca 1604 • 1607: Landed with colonists in Virginia, became governor • 1609: Returned to England, never to return to Virginia • Spent his remaining life promoting the colonies.

  8. Smith’s Map of Virginia

  9. Sudbury, Massachusetts

  10. Watertown, Massachusetts

  11. Mt. Vernon, Virginia

  12. Mt Vernon Slave Cabin: Restored

  13. Population Growth of the 13 Colonies • 1630: 4,600 • 1650: 50,000 • 1700: 250,000 • 1750: 1,170,000 • 1780: 2,780,000 • 1790: 3,900,000

  14. American Revolution • Seven Years War (French and Indian Wars): 1756-1763 • Challenge to British Rule: 1763…. • Declaration of Independence: 1776 • War for Independence: 1776-1783 • U.S. Constitution: 1787 • National Government convened: 1789.

  15. American Revolution • Based on the notions of “liberty”…”freedom” … “equality”… • ????

  16. Virginia, Massachusetts, South Carolina, 1630-1780 • Virginia: 2,500 to 538,000 • Massachusetts: 500 to 268,627 • South Carolina: 0 to 180,000 • Percent African American in 1780: • Virginia: 41% • Massachusetts: 1.8% • South Carolina: 54%

  17. Atlantic Slave Trade and Colonial U.S • Trade flourished from 15th to 19th Centuries. • 10 million Africans transported to New World • Proportion of the trade to British North American colonies: ~ 4%. • Slave trade banned in U.S. in 1808. • Abolition of Slavery: 1865.

  18. Peculiarities of US Slave System • Only New World Slave system sustained by “natural increase” rather than continued importation. • 400,000 “imports.” • 4,000,000 slaves freed in 1865 • One of the last slave economies to end • U.S. Civil War • Last nation: Brazil (1888).