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Europeans Explore the East

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  1. Europeans Explore the East Chapter 19 Section 1

  2. Key Terms • Bartolomeu Dias • Prince Henry • Vasco da Gama • Treaty of Tordesillas • Dutch East India Company

  3. The Drive to Explore • Driven by search for wealth • Desired expensive spices, silk, perfume from India and China • Flow of good to Europe controlled by the Italians • Some people wanted fame and glory

  4. The Drive to Explores • Hoped to spread faith into new lands • Writings by Marco Polo intrigued explorers • Introduced to different goods the Crusaders • Muslims and Italians controlled goods from the East to West

  5. Advances in Technology • Compass and astrolabe helped in navigation • Compass always pointed North • Astrolabe used the moon and stars • Ships built to ride lower in the water • Capable of withstanding heavier waves

  6. Advances in Technology • Had larger cargo holds • Caravel- a light fast ship, highly maneuverable • Steered from a rudder in the stern • Triangular sails to catch the wind • Could be used to sail directly into the wind

  7. Advances in Technology • Could be equipped with cannon • Could face hostile ships • Popular because of maneuverability and defensive ability

  8. Explorers from Spain and Portugal • Portugal- first country with large scale voyages • Henry the Navigator-the prince was a patron of the explorers • 1400’s Henry established a small court

  9. Prince Henry • 1415 helped to conquer Muslims in North Africa • Saw dazzling wealth beyond Europe • Portuguese found • Pepper • Cinnamon • Cloves and other spices • Gold, silver, and jewels

  10. Explorers from Portugal and Spain • Sailors • Mapmakers • Astronomers • People interested in navigation • Explored the Atlantic • Western coast of Africa • Settled in the Azores and Madeira islands

  11. Explorers from Portugal and Spain • Portuguese sailors learned Africa’s coast • Gold and slave trade • Goal to find a water route around Africa to India • 1488 Bartolomeu Dias first European to sail around southern Africa

  12. Explorers from Portugal and Spain • 1497 Vasco de Gama set out for India • 10 months to reach India • Learned about Muslim traders • Rounded Africa in 1498 • Explored Africa’s east coast

  13. Portuguese Sailors Reach Asia • Port Calicut in India • Amazed at the stores filled with • Spices • Rare silks • Precious gems • Cargo was worth 60 times the cost of the voyage • Trip 27,000 miles

  14. Explorers from Portugal and Spain • Portuguese established trading centers in India • Sailed to lands in Indonesia • Became one of the richest and most powerful people

  15. Portugal’s Trading Empire • Portugal built a fort at Hormuz • Had control of the strait of Hormuz • Stopped Muslim traders from reaching Spain • Wanted to crush Muslim-Italian domination over Asian trade

  16. The Spanish • 1492 Isabella and Ferdinand agreed to pay for Christopher Columbus’s voyage • Though he could sail west to China • Theory correct, size of the earth was wrong • Reached the Caribbean

  17. The Spanish • Thought he reached Asian islands after two months • Called the people Indians • Returned to Spain in 1493 • Brought back native Americans, gold silver, parrots, plants

  18. The Spanish • Columbus made three more trips • Opened door to colonization • Portuguese thought Columbus claimed land for Spain that they reached first

  19. Spain Also Makes Claim • Rivalry between Spain and Portugal grew more tense • Pope Alexander VI stepped in to keep the peace • Pope drew a line in the Atlantic

  20. Treaty of Tordesillas • All lands to the West of the line went to Spain • Lands to the East Portugal • Spain included most of the lands in the Americas • Portugal received modern day Brazil

  21. Other Nations Challenge Portugal • 1600 English and Dutch challenged Portugal’s dominance • Netherlands leading sea power with 20,000 ships • Pressure from English and Dutch Eroded Portugal’s influence

  22. East India Company • Both countries formed the company • Had power to • Mint money • Make Treaties • Raise their own armies • Dutch East India Company richer and more powerful • Drove out the English

  23. Dutch Trade Outpost • Dutch establish headquarters on the island of Java • 1600’s extended its control of the India Ocean • 1700’s Amsterdam became a leading commercial center • Controlled the Cape of Good Hope

  24. British and French Traders • 1700 Britain and France gain a foothold • England focused energy on India • Traded Indian cloth to Europe • France faced attacks by the Dutch • Establish an Indian outpost by 1720

  25. British and French Traders • Europeans battled for Indian Ocean Trade • Influence in Southeast Asia Limited • European traders did take control of many port towns • People of Asia remained unaffected by European contact