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Phase Equilibrium. Reading, Interpreting, and Drawing Phase Diagrams. Review: Energy and Phase Changes. Two-Phase Systems. A system is a set of components that are being studied. In this system, are phases, or parts of matter that are uniform. A lava lamp has two phases (components)

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phase equilibrium

Phase Equilibrium

Reading, Interpreting, and Drawing Phase Diagrams

two phase systems
Two-Phase Systems
  • A system is a set of components that are being studied.
  • In this system, are phases, or parts of matter that are uniform.
  • A lava lamp has two phases (components)
    • The layers in a lava lamp stay apart because their chemical compositions are different
  • What makes the two phases of ice water different from each other?
equilibrium
Equilibrium
  • Equilibrium involves constant interchange of particles.
  • If you open rubbing alcohol, you can smell it. This is because the alcohol diffuses out in the ________________ form.
  • After you recap the alcohol, an equilibrium is quickly reached again.
  • A dynamic EQUILIBRIUM is reached when particles are entering the gaseous phase at an equal rate as the particles go back to the liquid phase.
  • At 0°C, water is freezing at the same rate as the ice is melting.
vapor pressure and temp
Vapor Pressure and Temp
  • In a closed container with a sample of liquid in the bottom, there are gaseous particles striking all sides of the container.
  • These particles are also striking the liquid component.
  • The pressure exerted by the molecules of a gas, or vapor, phase in equilibrium with a liquid is called the vapor pressure.
  • As the temp increases, the molecules move ____________, giving them more kinetic energy. This allows more particles to break out of the liquid phase and enter the gas above.
  • As temp increases, vapor pressure ___________________.
phase diagrams
Phase Diagrams
  • The substance’s state depends on the temperature and pressure.
  • A phase diagram is a graph of the relationship between the physical state of a substance and the temperature and pressure of the substance.
  • A phase diagrams has three lines.
    • One line is a vapor pressure curve for the liquid-gas equilibrium.
    • The second line is for the liquid-solid equilibrium.
    • And the third is for the solid-gas equilibrium.
  • The temp and pressure conditions at which the solid, liquid, and gaseous phases of a system coexist at equilibrium is known as the triple point.
phase diagrams1
Phase Diagrams
  • The x-axis shows temperature
  • The y-axis shows pressure.
  • For any given point (x,y) [T, P] you can tell if the substance will be a solid, liquid, or gas.
  • An area above the gas phase lies the critical point
  • The critical point is the temperature and pressure at which the gas and liquid states of a substance become identical and form one phase.
phase diagrams2
Phase Diagrams
  • The lines in between the phases represent the phase equilibrium
  • i.e. the line between the solid and liquid represents the Solid-Liquid Equilibrium
  • The Solid-Liquid Equilibrium is nearly vertical.. Why??
  • Phase diagrams are unique to a particular substance.
  • The general structure will be roughly the same, but each substance will have its own BP and MP (Temp and Press)
effects of pressure
Effects of Pressure
  • Remember, solids and liquids are nearly incompressible.
  • Most substances, such as carbon dioxide, experience a slight increase in melting point when the pressure increases.
  • However, the effect of pressure on boiling point is MUCH greater… Why??
drawing a phase diagram
Drawing a Phase Diagram
  • The triple point of sulfur dioxide is at -73°C and 0.17 kPa. The critical point is at 158°C and 7.87x103kPa. The normal boiling point of sulfur dioxide is -10°C. Solid sulfur dioxide is denser than liquid sulfur dioxide. Sketch the phase diagram of sulfur dioxide.
  • What state is sulfur dioxide in at 200 kPa and -100°C?
  • What state is sulfur dioxide in at 1 kPa and 80°C?
  • What happens as you increase the pressure on a sample of sulfur dioxide at -11°C from 150 kPa to 300kPa?
more practice
More Practice
  • The triple point of benzene is at 5.5°C and 4.8 kPa. The critical point is at 289°C and 4.29 x 103kPa. Vapor pressure above solid benzene is 101.3 kPa at 80.1°C. Solid benzene is denser than liquid benzene. Sketch the phase diagram of benzene.