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Phase Equilibrium. Makaopuhi Lava Lake. Magma samples recovered from various depths beneath solid crust. From Wright and Okamura, (1977) USGS Prof. Paper , 1004 . 1250. 1200. 1150. 1100. Temperature o c . 1050. 1000. 950. 900. 20. 60. 30. 40. 50. 0. 100. 10. 70. 80. 90.

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makaopuhi lava lake
Makaopuhi Lava Lake

Magma samples recovered from various depths beneath solid crust

From Wright and Okamura, (1977) USGS Prof. Paper, 1004.

makaopuhi lava lake3

1250

1200

1150

1100

Temperature oc

1050

1000

950

900

20

60

30

40

50

0

100

10

70

80

90

Percent Glass

Makaopuhi Lava Lake

Temperature of sample vs. Percent Glass

Fig. 6-1. From Wright and Okamura, (1977) USGS Prof. Paper, 1004.

makaopuhi lava lake4

Olivine

Clinopyroxene

Plagioclase

Opaque

1250

Liquidus

1200

olivine decreases below 1175oC

1150

Temperature oC

1100

Melt

Crust

1050

1000

Solidus

950

0

10

0

10

20

30

40

50

0

10

20

30

40

50

10

0

Makaopuhi Lava Lake

Minerals that form during crystallization

Fig. 6-2. From Wright and Okamura, (1977) USGS Prof. Paper, 1004.

makaopuhi lava lake5
Makaopuhi Lava Lake

100

Olivine

Augite

Plagioclase

Mineral composition during crystallization

90

80

Weight % Glass

70

60

50

60

.7

.6

70

.9

.7

.9

80

.8

.8

Mg / (Mg + Fe)

An

Mg / (Mg + Fe)

Fig. 6-3. From Wright and Okamura, (1977) USGS Prof. Paper, 1004.

slide6

Crystallization Behavior of Melts

1. Cooling melts crystallize from a liquid to a solid over a range of temperatures (and pressures)

2. Several minerals crystallize over this T range, and the number of minerals increases as T decreases

3. The minerals that form do so sequentially, with considerable overlap

4. Minerals that involve solid solution change composition as cooling progresses

5. The melt composition also changes during crystallization

6. The minerals that crystallize (as well as the sequence) depend on T and X of the melt

7. Pressure can affect the types of minerals that form and the sequence

8. The nature and pressure of the volatiles can also affect the minerals and their sequence

slide7

The Phase Rule

  • F = C - f + 2
    • F = # degrees of freedom
      • The number of intensive parameters that must be specified in order to completely determine the system
    • f = # of phases
      • Phases are mechanically separable constituents
    • C = minimum # of components
    • Chemical constituents that must be specified in order to define all phases
    • 2 = 2 intensive parameters
      • Usually temperature and pressure for geologists
one component systems
OneComponent Systems

SiO2

Fig. 6-6. After Swamy and Saxena (1994), J. Geophys. Res., 99, 11,787-11,794. AGU

two component systems
Two Component Systems

Systems with Complete Solid Solution

PlagioclaseAb (NaAlSi3O8 ) - An (CaAl2Si2O8)

Fig. 6-8. Isobaric T-X phase diagram at atmospheric pressure. After Bowen (1913) Amer. J. Sci., 35, 577-599.

slide10
Bulk composition a = An60

= 60 g An + 40 g Ab

XAn = 60/(60+40) = 0.60

slide11

A continuous reaction of the type:

liquidB + solidC = liquidD + solidF

slide12

The lever principle:

Amount of liquid

ef

=

Amount of solid

de

where d = the liquid composition,

f = the solid composition

and e = the bulk composition

d

f

e

D

liquidus

de

ef

solidus

slide13

Equilibrium Crystallization of the Plagioclase Feldspars

1. Liquid of composition X (An61) cools to the liquidus

2. Crystals of approximately An87 begin to form

3. Crystals have higher Ca/Na than liquid; ppt of crystals causes L composition to become more sodic.

X

P=1 atm

4. Ratio of Ca/Na in both crystals and liquid decrease with decreasing temperature; proportion of crystals increases as liquid decreases

5. Crystals of An61 cool without further change in composition

Composition of 1st crystal

Composition of last crystal

PowerPoint® presentation by Kenneth E. Windom

Composition of last liquid

slide14

Note the following:

1. The melt crystallized over a T range of 135oC *

4. The composition of the liquid changed from b to g

5. The composition of the solid changed from c to h

Numbers refer

to the “behavior

of melts” observations

(several slides back)

** The actual temperatures and the range depend on the bulk composition **

slide15

Equilibrium melting is exactly the opposite

  • Heat An60 and the first melt is g at An20 and 1340oC
  • Continue heating: both melt and plagioclase change X
  • Last plagioclase to melt is c (An87) at 1475oC
slide16

Fractional crystallization:

Remove crystals as they form so they can’t

undergo a continuous reaction with the melt

At any T, Xbulk = Xliqdue to the removal of the crystals

slide17

Partial Melting:

Remove first melt as it forms

Melt Xbulk = 0.60, first liquid = g

remove and cool bulk = g ® final plagioclase = i

slide18

Two Component Systems

Olivine

Fo - Fa (Mg2SiO4 - Fe2SiO4)

also a solid-solution series

Fig. 6-10. Isobaric T-X phase diagram at atmospheric pressure After Bowen and Shairer (1932), Amer. J. Sci. 5th Ser., 24, 177-213.

2 c eutectic systems
2-C Eutectic Systems

Example: Diopside - Anorthite

No solid solution

Fig. 6-11. Isobaric T-X phase diagram at atmospheric pressure. After Bowen (1915), Amer. J. Sci. 40, 161-185.

slide20

1. A bulk composition of X cools to the liquidus, at which point An crystallizes.

2. Continued crystallization of An causes liquid composition to move toward Di.

3. When T=1274°C, liquid has moved to eutectic; Di begins to crystallize. No change in temperature or composition of any of the 3 phases is permitted until the liquid has completely crystallized.

4. At temperatures below 1274°C, only crystals of An and Di are present.

X

c 3 ternary systems example 1 ternary eutectic di an fo
C = 3: Ternary Systems:Example 1: Ternary EutecticDi - An - Fo

Anorthite

Note three binary eutectics

No solid solution

Ternary eutectic = M

M

T

Forsterite

Diopside

slide23

Crystallization Behavior of Melts

1. Cooling melts crystallize from a liquid to a solid over a range of temperatures (and pressures)

2. Several minerals crystallize over this T range, and the number of minerals increases as T decreases

3. The minerals that form do so sequentially, with considerable overlap

4. Minerals that involve solid solution change composition as cooling progresses

5. The melt composition also changes during crystallization

6. The minerals that crystallize (as well as the sequence) depend on T and X of the melt

7. Pressure can affect the types of minerals that form and the sequence

8. The nature and pressure of the volatiles can also affect the minerals and their sequence