Research Methods in Applied Linguistics & TESOL . Research Paradigms; quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods research. MA Applied Linguistics & TESOL; MA TESOL. Paradigms. “ A set of basic beliefs (or metaphysics) … It represents a world view that defines , for its holder,
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Research Paradigms; quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods research
MA Applied Linguistics & TESOL; MA TESOL
defines, for its holder,
“frameworks that function as maps or guides for scientific communities, determining important problems or issues for it members to address
defining acceptable theories or explanations, methods and techniques to solve defined problems.” (Usher 1996:15)
Do the beliefs of researchers (i.e. the scientific communities) in Physics, Philosphy, English Literature, Education, and Applied Linguistics & TESOL differ?
The nature of reality, what is, and what can be known about it
The nature of knowledge, and the relationship between knower and known
“the study of how knowledge is constructed about the world, who constructs it, and what criteria they use to create meaning and methodology” (Usher, 1996, p. 131)
Based on their beliefs, researchers choose paradigm:
[For a summary of positivism v. interpretivism, go to slide 22.]
It is assumed that all human action is meaningful, “and hence has to be interpreted and understood within the context of social practices.” (Usher, 1996, p.18)
(Denzin & Lincoln, 1994:2)
Society and the social system The individual
Medium/large scale research Small scale research
Natural science model Non-statistical
Researcher is 'outside' Researcher is personally involved
Generalizations from the specific Interpretations of the specific
Explaining behaviour Understanding actions
Seeking causes Meanings rather than causes
(after Cohen and Manion, 1994, p. 39)
In practice, researchers often adopt a model that is a combination of approaches, for example, both quantitative &positivist and qualitative & interpretive.
See the mixed methods research literature by Berman (2008), Creswell (2008), Cresswell & Clark (2007), and Tashakkori & Teddlie (1998, 2003).
The possibilities are practically endless, but mixed methods studies in education might include, for example:
Which is the right paradigm and which are the right methods for you depends on
Do you spontaneously sympathize more with one paradigm than the other? Are you more of an interpretivist, or a positivist?
Includes: Critical Ethnography, Feminism, Critical Pedagogy, Critical Discourse Analysis
Validity of a critical theory is measured by its ability to enlighten and foster personal autonomy.
Heigham, J. & Croker, R. A. (Eds.) (2009). Qualitative research in applied linguistics. A practical introduction. Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan. (Available as e-book.)
Dörnyei, Z. (2007)Research methods in applied linguistics : quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methodologies. Oxford : Oxford University Press (Multiple hard copies available.)
Kendall, A. King &Nancy H. Hornberger (Eds.) (2008). Encyclopedia of language and education, Vol.10: Research methods in language and education. New York, N.Y., Springer. (Available as e-book.)
Cohen, L., Manion, L. & Morrison, K. (2002) Research Methods in Education 5th Edition. Routledge
Cresswell, J. W. and V. L. P. Clark (2007). Designing and conducting mixed methodsresearch. London, Sage