slide1 l.
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
Integrative Mixed-Methods Research: A Workshop

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 95

Integrative Mixed-Methods Research: A Workshop - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 150 Views
  • Uploaded on

P154. Integrative Mixed-Methods Research: A Workshop. Theory, Methods and Applications. Felipe González Castro, M.S.W., Ph.D., Professor Department of Psychology and Southwest Interdisciplinary Research Center Arizona State University, & Tanya Nieri, Ph.D., Assistant Professor

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Integrative Mixed-Methods Research: A Workshop' - stu


Download Now An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
slide1

P154

Integrative

Mixed-Methods

Research: A Workshop

Theory, Methods and Applications

Felipe González Castro, M.S.W., Ph.D., Professor

Department of Psychology and Southwest Interdisciplinary Research Center

Arizona State University,

&

Tanya Nieri, Ph.D., Assistant Professor

Department of Sociology, University of California Riverside

Presentation at the Hispanic Health Disparities Research Center, University of Texas at El Paso,

August 14, 2009, El Paso, TX

slide2

I

Introduction and

Orientation

slide3

Purpose of This Workshop

* The purpose of this workshop is to introduce and illustrate an Integrative Mixed-Methods(IMM) approach, and to allow participants to utilize this approach in their own research.

* This includes:

* Introducing conceptual, methodological, and

applied issues

* Understanding the strategy for integrating

qualitative and quantitative evidence (data)

* Discussing and illustrating data analytic and

interpretive approaches

* Describing and illustrating the IMM

methodology including practice exercises

slide4

Overview of Workshop Objectives

1. To provide a framework for understanding the IMM approach

2. To review issues in the conceptualizationand measurement under the IMM approach

3. To examine research design and implementation issues

4. To offer interactive question-and-answer periods to discuss issues in the application of the IMM approach.

5. To present practice exercises in the use of the IMM methodology.

slide5

Strengths of Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches

* Qualitative

* Rich details of a phenomenon under

study

* Contextualization

* Meaning and interpretation

* Quantitative

* Valid and reliable measurement

* Assessment of strength of associations

* Group comparisons

* Hypothesis testing

slide6

Advantages of Mixed-Methods Approaches

* Aims of general mixed-methods approaches are to obtain “the best of both worlds” by using both qualitative and quantitative procedures within a single study (Bryman, 2007).

* Limitations of quantitative only studies

* Measurement decontextualizes evidence

* Results may be precise, but nevertheless

lacking in explanatory power.

Bryman, A. (2007). Barriers to integrating quantitative and qualitative research. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 1, 8-22.

slide7

Limitations of Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches

* Limitations of qualitative only studies

* Difficulties in integration across cases

* Cannot examine strength of associations among variables

* Conclusions are suggestive, not confirmatory

* Small sample sizes greatly limit

generalizability and applicability.

* Limitations of sequential mixed-methods designs

* (Bryman, 2007)

Bryman, A. (2007). Barriers to integrating quantitative and qualitative research. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 1, 8-22.

slide8

Advantages of Mixed-Methods Approaches

* Integrative Mixed-Methods aims to be a “best combination” design

* Strength of confirmatory results derived from the quantitative analyses

* Deep-structure explanatory descriptions from

analysis of the qualitative text narratives

* Offers a concurrentand integrative methodology for rigorous analyses that aim to

attain, “the best of both methodologies: An

integrative QUAL+QUANT design (Castro,

Kellison, Boyd & Kopak, under review).

Castro, F. G., Kellison, J., Boyd, S., Kopak, A. (under review). A methodology for conducting integrative mixed-methods research and data analyses.

slide9

Specific Gains from the IMM Approach

* Allows greater authenticity in the study of culture, cultural nuances

* Facilitates a “deep-structure” study of complex constructs

* Acculturation: A complex process of culture

change

* Traditionalism: Core cultural orientations and

values that persist across time

* Cultural Gender Roles: Machismo,

Marianismo

* Cultural Identity: Mexican, Mexican American,

Puerto Rican conceptions and feelings about

that identity.

slide10

Specific Gains from the IMM Approach

* Allows process analysis of developmental sequences

* Short-term coping processes

* Longer-term developmental effects

* Allows analysis of complex emotional states

* Ambivalence: The mixed emotion

* Complex emotional states: Depression

with anger vs. depression with anxiety

slide11

Specific Gains from the IMM Approach

* Allows discovery of new aspects not previously identified

* Can recontextualize results of quantitative analyses adding depth of meaning

* Recontextualization “relates results of data analyses to their original context and lends depth

of interpretation to the quantitatively derived

results.” (Castro et al., under review; Castro &

Coe, 2007).

* Storylines: Allow deep-structure analysis of quantitative results by generating a descriptive story from the narratives of specific cases

* The text narratives of contrasting groups of cases

can used to develop storylines.

slide13

II

Theory and

Conceptual

Approach

slide14

Major Assumptions

1. Broad conception of measurement (“integrative qual-quant” approach): Two forms of research evidence

2. Focusing the method- Format of the focus question

3. Independence of observations/cases: A “Focus Group of One.” Unit of analysis is individual case.

Creswell, J. W., Plano Clark, V. L., Gutmann M. L., & Hanson W. E. (2003). Advances in mixed methods research designs. In A. Tashakkori & C. Teddle (Eds.), Handbook of mixed methods in social and behavioral research (pp. 209-240). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

slide15

Major Assumptions

4. Recurring themes exposed independently reflect consensual “cultural expressions” (beliefs, perceptions, attitudes, values) that exist within a local community

5. Rigor is essential in qualitative (and quantitative) design and analyses

6.“Concurrent Qual-Quant Design”allows transfer across evidence domains

Creswell, J. W., Plano Clark, V. L., Gutmann M. L., & Hanson W. E. (2003). Advances in mixed methods research designs. In A. Tashakkori & C. Teddle (Eds.), Handbook of mixed methods in social and behavioral research (pp. 209-240). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

slide16

Conceptual Framework for IMM Research

Castro, F. G., & Coe, K. (2007). Traditions and alcohol use: A mixed-methods analysis. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology13. 269-284. ,

slide17

Conceptual Framework for IMM Research

7. Parallelism between qualitative and quantitative

* “The greater the quantitative-qualitative

parallelism incorporated a-priori into a study

design, the easier it will be to transform and

transfer the textual and numeric forms of

evidence.” (Castro et al., under review).

8. Unified conceptualization of information as research evidence with verbal and numeric forms

Castro, F. G., Kellison, J., Boyd, S., Kopak, A. (under review). A methodology for conducting integrative mixed-methods research and data analyses.

slide18

Conceptual Framework for IMM Research

* Focus on a core construct, e.g., traditionalism or machismo

* Six stages of an IMM research study

* Can examine relationships among variables, e.g., convergent and discriminant validity of constructs, both for those quantitatively measured (scales) and those qualitatively constructed (thematic variables) (Castro et al., under review).

Castro, F. G., Kellison, J., Boyd, S., Kopak, A. (under review). A methodology for conducting integrative mixed-methods research and data analyses.

slide19

Limitations of the IMM Method

* Newly generated thematic variables are sample specific

* The quality of probing influences narrative production and depth

* Face validity of the constructed thematic variables; are they valid beyond face validity, e.g., construct validity?

* Focus question approach suited to some, but not all, research questions

* IMM is an emerging and evolving methodology with some issues still being addressed and resolved.

slide21

Deep Structure in Cultural Research

* “Culture” is a complex entity with many conceptionsand definitions(Baldwin & Lindsey, 1994).

* Scientific research that effectively addresses cultural issues must recognize the complexity of culture, and conduct a “deep structure” approach (Resnicow, Braithwaite, Ahluwalia, & Butler, 2000) to the study of cultural effects and cultural contexts.

* How can we integrate quantitative and qualitative evidenceand methodsinto an integrative methodology that also constitutes sound science?

* Baldwin, J.R., & Lindsley, S.L. (1994). Conceptualizations of culture. Tempe, AZ: Arizona State

University.

* Resnicow, K., Soler, R., Braithwaite, R. L., Ahluwalia, J. S. & Butler, J. (2000). Cultural sensitivity in

substance use prevention. Journal of Community Psychology, 28, 271-290.

slide22

Aims in Deep Structure Cultural Research

* To generate recurring thematic content derived inductively across cases, and from open-ended responses to one or more focus questions (group-related thematic categories).

* In a “focus group of one,” each focus question introduces a topic area, e.g., “What is a real macho like? A real macho is: ________,

which allows rich responses to that question.

* Independent interviews (independent data points) allow the statistical analysis of inductively constructed thematic variables.

slide23

Explanatory Power and Process Analysis

* Simple “cultural indicators” e.g., race/ethnicity (Hispanic/Latino, non-Hispanic white, Black) even in large sample epidemiologic studies may offer high “predictive power” (power to detect or relate) but often yields low “explanatory power.”

* The meaningof a statistically-significant association may be limited.

slide24

Ecological Contexts

* Context :

1. refers to “…surrounding conditions that

can affect a specific process or outcome (Castro, Shaibi & Boehm-Smith, 2009,

p. 91).

2. refers to “conditional effects… a health

outcome is dependent on the particular

level of a specific or controlling

condition that affects the outcome.”

3. characteristics or conditions “can temper

or even modify the meaning of [an] event.”

Castro, F. G., Shaibi, G. Q., & Boehn-Smith, E. (2009). Ecodevelopmental contexts for preventing type 2

diabetes in Latino and other racial/ethnic minority populations. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 32, 89-105.

slide25

Ecodevelopmental Model

* Sociocultural contexts are “surrounding”macro-levelenvironmental influences that can influence or otherwise modify the meaning of amicro-level event (an event at the biological, personal, or familial levels).

slide26

An Ecodevelopmental Temporal Effects Model

Castro, F. G., Shaibi, G. Q., & Boehn-Smith, E. (2009). Ecodevelopmental contexts for preventing type 2

diabetes in Latino and other racial/ethnic minority populations. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 32, 89-105.

slide27

An Ecodevelopmental Temporal Effects Model

Castro, F. G., Shaibi, G. Q., & Boehn-Smith, E. (2009). Ecodevelopmental contexts for preventing type 2

diabetes in Latino and other racial/ethnic minority populations. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 32, 89-105.

slide28

Aims of the Integrative Mixed Methods Approach

* In addition to generating specific confirmatory results, the integrative mixed-methods approach aims to generate results rich in explanatory power:

A more complete explanation of:

* A complex construct

* A sociocultural process

* Complex interaction effects

Castro, F. G., Kellison, J., Boyd, S., Kopak, A. (under review). A methodology for conducting integrative mixed-methods research and data analyses.

slide29

Assumptions and Approach

* The mixed-methods approach (Creswell et al, 2003; Hansen et al, 2005) can be more informative in identifying person x situation aspects of health (Creswell et al., 2003; Hansen et al., 2005).

* As applied to health research, the mixed methods approach can uncover previously undetected thematic patterns that exist within special populations.

* Creswell, J. W., Clark, V. L. P., Gutmann, M. L., & Hanson, W. E. (2003). Advanced mixed methods research designs. In A. Tashakkori & C. Teddle (Eds.), Handbook of mixed methods in social and behavioral research (pp. 209-241). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

* Hansen, W. E., Creswell, J. W., Clark, V. L. P., Petaka, K. S., & Creswell, J. D. (2005). Mixed methods research designs in counseling psychology. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 52, 224-235.

slide30

Starting with an Appreciation for Culture

* Value of cultural factors as an important in scientific research, especially with special populations.

* Devaluing cultural factors promotes culturally-shallow research.

* Incorporating cultural factors from the beginning; at the stage of research conceptualization and design.

* Need rigor in both the design and implementation of qualitativeand quantitativeaspects of the research study.

slide31

Machismo & Marianismo: Complex Cultural Constructs

* Machismo - A traditional Latino gender role orientation that emphasizes male dominance and privilege as a proper form of male conduct.

* Marianismo- A traditional Latino female role orientation that emphasizes motherly nurturance, and the demure and pure identity of a virgin (Virgin Mary) as a proper form of female conduct (Paniagua, 1998).

Paniagua, F. A. (1998). Assessing and treating culturally diverse clients: A practical guide (2n ed).

Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

slide33

III

The Integrative

Mixed-Methods

Approach

slide34

Design Guidelines

* Parallelism in a unified conceptualization of research evidence as numeric and text narrative formats.

* Explicitly integrative design; emphasizes the linkageand interchangeof qualitative and quantitative data (Bryman, 2007).

* Purposive sampling; sample size ranging from 40 to 200.

* Concurrent (QUAL+QUANT) design (not sequential).

Bryman, A. (2007). Barriers to integrating quantitative and qualitative research. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 1, 8-22.

slide35

Parallel Design Elements

* Qualitative: Clear and specific focus questions aid in generating specific and informative narrative content that is obtained via individual open-ended interviews.

* Quantitative: A sound choice of measured variables allows the measurement of complementary scaled variables.

* This allows the conduct of convergent and discriminant validity (statistical triangulation) using planned correlational analyses.

slide36

Balancing Specificity with Rich Complexity

* Quantitative measured variables (scales) generate specific scores but may be shallow in content.

* Qualitative responses (thematic categories) may be rich in content, but may be non-specific.

* The integrative mixed methods approach aims to attain the best of both approaches under a unified, rigorous and informativemethodology.

slide37

Rigor in Design and Implementation

* Individual focus question interviews, and thus independence of observations/cases, allows statistical analysis of data.

* Can evaluate the strength of association among measured variables (from scales) and among thematic variables (constructed from thematic text analysis).

* Statistical triangulation can be conducted from correlational analyses of measured variables and thematic variables.

slide38

Steps in Conducting

the IMM Approach

slide39

Six Steps in the IMM Approach

1. Create focus question and conduct interviews (COLLECTION)

2. Extract response codes from interview transcripts (CONVERSION)

3. Create thematic categories – “families” (CONVERSION)

4. Assign axial codes to create thematic variables (CONVERSION)

5. Conduct integrative data analysis (ANALYSIS)

6. Create storylines – recontextualize (INTERPRETATION)

slide40

Conceptual Framework for IMM Research

Castro, F. G., & Coe, K. (2007). Traditions and alcohol use: A mixed-methods analysis. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology13. 269-284. ,

slide41

Step 1:

The Focus

Quesstion

slide42

Focus Questions - Machismo Beliefs and Identity

Who You Are and Where You are Going:

PLATICA - HISPANIC LEADERS

(Version 12a, ENGL 4-11-06)

IDNo. ____________ Today’s Date: _____________ Start Time: ________

Please answer these questions honestly on how you feel and what you think. The best answers are those which tell exactly what you think and feel.

III. Gender Identity

3a. Male and Female Traits. Within the Latino/Hispanic cultures and in other parts of the world, men are often described as being “manly” or “macho” and women are often described as being “feminine.”

1a. Please tell me what a real “macho” man is like (their traits or characteristics).

Tell me more.

1b. How much do you identify with this form of being macho?

2. Now, please tell me what a woman is like who is very “feminine” or

“motherly.” Tell me more.

slide43

Step 1. Focus Questions

* Are brief, personalized, and prompt a specific and “focused” response.

* Can be framed in a sentence completion format:

“How do you think about (conceptualize)

acculturation as it occurs among Latino populations?

1a. “Acculturation is: ___________.

1b. “Acculturation” is best studied by: _______.

* Must be designed based on a theoretical orientation or conceptual framework, and must be clearly constructed to aid in generating interpretable responses.

slide44

Step 1. Focus Questions

* A well constructed focus question

introduces a topic area, and prompts clear and specific responses, while also allowing a

diversity of responses whereby

this, “allows the voices of the participants to be heard.”

slide46

Overview of the Text Analysis Flow Chart

1. Response narratives( Ri )

* Participants’ complete or full responses to the

focus question.

2. Response codes( Cj )

* Specific portion of the participants’ responses to the

focus question.

3. Thematic categories - “Families” ( Fk )

* Sets of response codes that have a common

meaning; coded as mentioned=1, not=0.

4. Thematic variables( Vl )

* Axial coded thematic categories that are converted

into numeric data.

slide47

Some Points Regarding Transcription

Transcription Procedures

1. Access the transcription template file.

2. Transcriptions:

A. Do not type out the main interviewer probes.

B. Do type the additional probing questions used by the

interviewers.

C. Use “P:” and “I:” to indicate whether the participant or

interviewer are the speakers.

D. Go for meaning over exact words and utterances, while still

capturing the main message expressed by the participant.

E. Notation you may need:

a. If you can’t decipher a word or phrase at all, use: [unclear].

b. If you have an important comment or observation to make

about an event occurring within the tape, please indicate

your comment within brackets, for example: [The participant

cries at this point].

3. If you encounter problems or some notable issues, please add these

comments to your weekly report of progress.

slide48

About Atlas.ti

* Atlas.ti is a multi-purpose qualitative analysis program that, “helps you uncover the complex phenomena hidden in your data.” (Atlas.ti, 2009).

* Analysis capabilities include:

* Text search tool with search and retrieve functions

* Interactive boxes allowing “drag and drop”

* Automatic and interactive forms of coding

* A “family manager” for creating and managing

thematic categories (families)

* A filter tool to select subsets of text information

* Export capabilities to SPSS, Excel, and for other

programs

* Web link: http://www.atlasti.com/

http://www.atlasti.com/quicktour.html

slide49

Step 2:

Response

Codes

slide50

Step 2. Response Codes

  • * A response code is linked to the participant’s Case ID Number.
  • * [T599] A macho is a man who protects his family from harm and also provides for them.

* A response code is the specific answer (a quotation excerpt) to the focus question, as contrasted with:

* incidental comments or statements that do not directly answer the focus question

* a label that summarizes the content of the response

  • * Each case can have zero, one, two, three or more response codes.
slide51

Step 2. Response Codes – Types of Codes

* Atlas.ti offers three basic types of coding:

* Open Coding - codes highlighted text and

allows adding to it a descriptive label

* Code by List - Uses previously created

codes in coding a new set of text

* Code in Vivo (In Vivo Coding) - Selected

text is registered as a “quotation” and used

as a “code,” thus capturing a specific

statement as given by a respondent.

slide52

Step 2. Response Codes

* In-vivo coding of responses to focus question:

* Two independent coders identify specific

thematic response codes to the focus

question producing inductively identified

relevant responses .

* List of responses is compared across

raters (inter-rater reliability) and finalized via

comparison and consensual

agreement.

* A final listing is attained of thematic

response codes to the focus question.

slide53

Step 3:

Thematic

Categories

"Families"

slide54

Step 3. Thematic Categories

* The thematic response codes are organized into the smallest number of distinct thematic categories(“families” in Atlas.ti).

* Inductive “bottom-up” or “inside out” coding is drawn directly from participants’ thematic response codes

* “Participants’ voices are heard.”

slide55

Step 3. Thematic Categories

* The aim is to generate “strong families:” families having with a large number (or percentage) ofresponses/casesthat mention that theme

* Strong families have over 20% of all cases mentioning that theme, and ideally responses range from 30% to 70%.

slide56

Atlas.ti Response Code Listing

Listing of Response Codes

Code Family: 1b. “How much do you identify with this form of being macho?”

_____________________________________________________________

HU: Master Machismo Codes 1a

File: [I:\1-MY FILES\a-PRESENTATIONS\P154 - Integrative Mixed-Methods Wor...\

Master Machismo Codes 1a.hpr5]

Edited by: Super

Date/Time: 08/11/09 11:34:58 AM

_____________________________________________________________

Created: 04/07/09 05:58:57 PM (Super)

Codes (33):

[T508: I think I would fit the Hispanic, or the Mexican’s description of macho [family orientated]]

[T510 A lot]

[T510 Especially within the family]

[T510 I think it is a part of my identity of being an encourager]

[T510 I try to promote that within my family]

[T510 Yes, I identify with that totally]

[T513 As the oldest one, I had certain responsibilities in terms of looking out for your brothers and sisters and

your mom]

[T517 I’m macho in the way that I define macho [honorable, responsible, respectful toward women, courageous]]

[T531 From a correct way, very definitely.]

[T531 I feel that I provide for my family, and my kids,]

[T531 Meet your responsibilities, don’t hang out in the bar drinking beer]

[T532 I strive to be macho in that sense, providing for my family.]

[T533 Cares about his family]

[T533 More of a gentleman, than macho]

slide58

Step 4:

Thematic

Variables -

Axial Coding

slide59

Step 4. Axial Coding to Create Thematic Variables

* Axial coding dimensionalizes the thematic category

* Axial coding is a Grounded Theory technique (Strauss & Corbin, 1990).

* Converts a thematic category (0= not mentioned, 1= mentioned) to a thematic variable(0,1,2,3).

* Frequency Axial Codes: (0= no mention, 1= 1 mention, 2= 2 mentions, 3= 3 or more mentions).

Strauss, A. & Corbin, J. (1990). Basics of qualitative research: Grounded theory procedures and techniques. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

slide60

Step 4. Axial Coding to Create Thematic Variables

* Intensity Axial Codes:

0 =not mentioned,

1 = suggested mention,

2 = solid mention,

3 = emphatic mention).

* From the actual narratives or codes within each category, identify example narratives or codes that can be used as anchor codes to guide the ratings of all other narratives.

Strauss, A. & Corbin, J. (1990). Basics of qualitative research: Grounded theory procedures and techniques. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

slide61

Step 4. Axial Coding to Create Thematic Variables

* Exemplar anchor codes:

Example: “Physically controlling and abusive” family

1 = suggested mention

* “He tries to tell his family what to do”

2 = solid mention

* “He is aggressive with his family.”

3 = emphatic mention

* “He is very aggressive and

intimidates the entire family.”

slide64

Step 5:

Integrative

Data Analysis

slide65

Step 5. Mixed-Methods Data Analyses

* Frequencies to examine distributional properties of the thematic variables (Skew and kurtosis).

* Exploratory Factor Analysis

* Identified underlying structure of the set of thematic variables

* The thematic variables loading on each factor can create factor scores (factor variables) for subsequent multivariate analyses.

slide66

Factor Analysis of the Machismo Thematic Variables

Kellison, J. G. (2009). The role of machismo in the resilience of Hispanic males. Master’s Thesis, Arizona State University. Tempe, AZ: Author.

slide67

Step 5. Mixed-Methods Data Analyses (continued)

* Correlational Analyses

* Associations between and across variable types (thematic variables with

scaled variables)

* Hierarchical Model Regression Analyses

* Measured variables and thematic variables as predictors of key dependent

variable

* Can use thematic variable factor scores

as predictors.

slide70

Step 6:

Recontextualization -

Storylines

slide71

Step 6. Recontextualizing and Storylines

* Features integrationof results, with final storyline,based on text narratives and quotes to add depth to results generated from correlational, regression, or other multivariate analyses.

* Aim: To capture group’s collective story in response to a specific issue by examining quotes from cases loading high and low on identified key variables.

slide72

Step 6. Recontextualizing and Storylines

* Analysis of Contrasting Groups

* Adaptive(High Resilience) cases

* Maladaptive (Low Resilience)

cases.

* Or cases high and low on an

outcome variable, e.g., Life

Satisfaction scale

* The contrasting set of narratives

capture group differences in

responses to the focus question.

slide73

Step 6. Recontextualizing and Storylines

* Examine thematic responses for cases from each group and develop a storylinefor each

* Then compare and contrast

extreme group cases to create

storylines and to draw conclusions

on the influences of a key variable

on group-related patterns of

response.

slide74

Step 6. Recontextualizing and Storylines

* Example:

* High/positive: “For me it’s like acting

like a gentleman.”

* Low/negative: “I’m lazy, I’m selfish,

I have a short fuse.”

slide77

V

Hands-On

Analyses

slide78

Exercises on Thematic Analysis of Evidence

* Purpose: To illustrate the use of an integrative

mixed methods approach for identifying thematic

content and its response codes from open-ended responses to a specific focus question

* Task: Using worksheets, identify thematic response

codes and then categories (cluster) into Thematic Categories

* Consider what patterns may emerge which after

axial coding, could generate a set of thematic

variables, usable in correlational and regression model analyses

* Consider the storyline that might emerge from

the overall analysis of these responses

slide80

Exercise on Thematic Analysis

* There are three steps in thematic coding that converts verbal evidence into numeric evidence within the integrative mixed-methods approach, as illustrated by this Thematic Text Analysis: A Flow Chart.

* The four forms of verbal evidence are:

(1) Responses to the focus question,

(2) Thematic response codes identified

from the response narratives

(3) Created thematic categories, and

(4) Thematic variables generated via

the process of axial coding.

slide81

Exercise # 1

Creating a

Focus Question

slide82

Exercise # 1. Creating a Focus Question

Your Research Study

PLATICA - FOCUS QUESITONS

(Version 1a, ENGL 8-14-09)

IDNo. ________ Today’s Date: _________ Start Time: ________

Please answer these questions honestly on how you feel and what you think. The best answers are those which tell exactly what you think and feel.

I. Ethnic Identity

1. Ethnic or Cultural Identity. Many people in America can claim a

certain ethnic, cultural or familial heritage. This heritage affects how

people see and identity themselves, that is, their “ethnic or cultural

identity.”

1a.

1b.

2.

slide83

Exercise # 2

Creating "Families"

Thematic Codes

slide84

Exercise #2 - Creating “Families” - Thematic Codes

Response Codes Listed by Case ID

[T502 I have been in fights…but I have always won]

[T504 I’ve tried to work to cast aside a lot of that inherited culture

that a lot of Mexican men have.]

[T506 I try, [chuckles]]

[T506 I identify with it and try to conform to it [controlling,

stereotypical macho].]

[T506 I try to be caring and feeling across gender, and racial and

ethnic lines]

[T507 I mean it comes in when you have to use the certain traits of

being macho.]

[T507 It comes into play with myself.]

[T507 I was very competitive in sports.]

[T510 I think it is a part of my identity of being an encourager]

[T510 Yes, I identify with that [a gentleman] totally]

(Continues)

slide85

Exercise # 3

Dimensionalizing

Via Axial Coding

slide86

Exercise on Thematic Analysis - Step 3

* Step 3. Axial Coding

* Reliably dimensionalizes each thematic

category

* Converts a thematic category into a

thematic variable.

* The thematic variable can then operate

as a variable within correlational and

other multivariate analyses.

* Allows the encoding of nuances or

shades of meaning to the developing

slide87

Exercise on Thematic Analysis - Step 3

* Intensity Axial Coding:

0 = No Mention - not indicated in

any way,

1 = Suggested Mention - hints of the

theme,

2 = Basic Mention - a single

mention

3 = Elaborated Mention - a mention

with repetition and elaboration.

* Frequency Axial Coding - Number of

mentions (0 to 3)

slide88

Exercise # 4

Data

Analyses

slide90

Types of Integrative Data Analyses

* Analysis of distributional properties (skew, kurtosis)

* Factor analysis

* Correlation analysis

* Between thematic variables

* Between measured variables

* Thematic variables with measured variable

* Convergent and discriminant validity

* Regression analysis

* Group comparisons

slide91

Exercise # 5

Creating

Storylines

slide93

Deep Structure Analyses from the Storylines

* What are the emerging themes distilled from the texts examined?

* The Storyline

* What patterns emerge from the overview

analysis of the various thematic categories

that emerged?

* Put another way, what are these participants

telling us in their answers to the focus question?

* How do extreme groups differ and what is each

group’s respective story?

* How do these storylines answer the study’s

research question?

slide95

VI

Summary and

Final Points