Early Modern World: Renaissance
The Renaissance • 1400s • Means “rebirth” • People were interested in the works of the Greeks and Romans • Began in Italy • Location made it important for trade
The Renaissance • Wealthy Italians acted as patrons supported artists, writers, and scholars • Secularism- people began to show greater interest in this world • People used observation and experience to explain the world • Not the church
The Renaissance • Like Greeks, Renaissance thinkers believed in the power of human reason. • Humanists placed great emphasis on the dignity, worth, and uniqueness of each person.
Artistic Impact of the Renaissance: Painting and Sculpture • Before the Renaissance, art in Italy was influenced by the Byzantines—highly decorative, but flat and un-lifelike. • Renaissance Art • figures in lifelike spaces • depth • shadowing • showed emotions • perspective
Painting and Sculpture • Renaissance artists showed 3D space on a 2D surface • Artists developed the rules of perspective • Artists also introduced shadows and other realistic effects.
Painting and Sculpture • Leonardo Da Vinci • Sculptor and inventor • Mona Lisa and Last Supper • RENAISSANCE MAN • Da Vinci also had a scientific mind • studied human anatomy • designed parachute and machine gun
Painting and Sculpture • Michelangelo • David, Moses, and the Pieta • each sculpture was carved from a single slab of marble • His giant fresco painting on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in Rome is considered one of the greatest works of art of all time • fresco is a painting made on fresh plaster
Early Modern World: Economic and Intellectual Impact of the Renaissance
The Economic Impact • Renaissance ideas and products quickly spread all over Europe • People tried to accumulate more wealth and property • Encouraged an increase in trade, • greater variety of products • growth of cities
Intellectual Impact: Science & Technology • The Church taught that the Earth was the center of the universe • Nicholas Copernicus concluded that the Earth orbited the sun • His work was banned by the church
Science and Technology • Galileo Galilei- scientist who laid the foundation for modern physics • Used a telescope to prove the sun was center of the universe • Charges were brought against him by the Catholic Church and he was told he could never publicly state that the Earth moved around the sun. • He was tried, found guilty, and sentenced to never leave his home.
The Printing Press • Books were copied by hand and were only found in churches and monasteries • Block printing in China enabled printers to make copies of books, but only one page at a time
The Printing Press • Johann Gutenberg developed the printing press with moveable type in 1450 • Type could be reset • instead of carving a new letter block from wood with each printing • Allowed for the mass production of printed books for the first time • Encouraged the spread of new ideas • More people began to learn to read
Early Modern World: Impact of the Renaissance
Artistic Impact: Architecture • Abandoned the Gothic architecture of the Middle Ages • Domes • Columns • Arches
Intellectual Impact : Scholarship and Literature • Petrarch, the “Father of Humanism” collected and studied ancient texts • People began to question the church • Other Renaissance authors wrote on secular (non-religious) subjects
Scholarship and Literature • Many writers, like Boccaccio, wrote in the vernacular (local) language instead of Latin • Rabelais in France, William Shakespeare in England, and Cervantes in Spain wrote in their native languages
The Political Impact • Niccolo Machiavelli • The Prince, was a guidebook on how to gain and keep political power • “the ends justifies the means.”
Assignment • Read the handout. Then answer the following question: • Do you agree with Machiavelli’s advice in this passage? Why or why not?