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Modern World History From the Age of Discovery to the Present Sources: The Wealth and Poverty of Nations Landes, 1999 The End of Poverty Sachs, 2005 Wikipedia Haves Plants easy to domesticate Animals easy to domesticate

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modern world history

Modern World History

From the Age of Discovery

to the Present


The Wealth and Poverty of Nations Landes, 1999

The End of Poverty Sachs, 2005


agricultural revolution

Plants easy to domesticate

Animals easy to domesticate

East-west continent orientation

Similar climate

Crops move easily

Culture follows

Successful Agriculture

Population explosion




Fierce warfare






Or later

Agricultural Revolution
industrial revolution

Many competing countries

Expanded trade

Without regulation

Raw materials


Iron, coal

Individual freedoms

Ideas, science

Literacy, books

Economic, social


Power: coal, water



Big guns




Government control


Or undeveloped


Conservative religion

Social, economic hierarchies


Industrial Revolution

age of discovery 15 th 16 th century
Age of Discovery: 15th-16th century

early world powers portugal and spain
Early World Powers: Portugal and Spain
  • Portugal
    • Discovers Brazil
      • By sailing south around tip of Africa to find India
    • Dominant force in Indian Ocean
    • Early Monopoly on Spice Trade
  • Spain
    • New World Colonies extracted for wealth: gold
    • Plantation system
    • Slavery

colonial economic system
Colonial Economic System



Wealth, Taxes

Food, Resources


new world slave trade
New World Slave Trade

slave trade triangle
Slave Trade Triangle
  • Slaves captured or bought in Africa
  • Shipped to Caribbean to work on Sugar plantations
  • Slaves traded for sugar
  • Sugar traded in Europe for manufactured goods
  • European manufactured goods traded in Africa for slaves

Slave Trade Triangle


african slaves in the new world
African slaves in the New World

agricultural slavery economy
Agricultural Slavery Economy


Legalized Slavery



Agriculture depends on Slavery

Religion Justified Slavery

religious justification for slavery
Noah cursed Ham’s son: "Cursed be Canaan! The lowest of slaves will he be to his brothers. He also said, 'Blessed be the Lord, the God of Shem! May Canaan be the slave of Shem. May God extend the territory of Japheth; may Japheth live in the tents of Shem and may Canaan be his slave'. " Genesis 9:25-27

Descendents of Ham were thought to inhabit Africa

This was used to justify African slavery

Religious Justification for Slavery

Curse of Ham

agricultural slavery economy15
Agricultural Slavery Economy


Food Production


Slave Population

slavery in islamic countries
Slavery in Islamic Countries
  • Slavery permitted in Koran
    • Muhammad owned slaves
      • Non-Muslims enslaved in Jihad
      • Freeing of slaves encouraged
  • More women enslaved
    • For domestic help, harems
      • Sex outside of marriage permitted with female slaves
  • Not primarily for agriculture
    • Men often castrated
      • Some used as warriors
  • Breeding of slaves not common
    • Needed to be constantly imported
      • Millions from Africa over 14 centuries
    • Death tolls high
  • Abolished in 20th century
    • Persists in Sudan, Mauritania

Zanzibar Slave Market, 1860s

protestant reformation 16 th century
Protestant Reformation: 16th century
  • Germany, Netherlands, England
    • Freedom from authority of Church
    • Reading Bible in common language
    • Triggers new thought and science
    • Where the industrial revolution began

Martin Luther

protestant reformation
Protestant Reformation

counter reformation
Counter Reformation
  • Spain, Portugal, Italy
    • Repression of new ideas
    • Ban on foreign books
      • education suffered
    • Heresies punished
      • to preserve Church
    • Inquisition:
      • Protestants, Jews, Moslems
    • Fell behind in technology

long term effect on literacy
Literacy in 1900

Britain : 97%

Italy: 52%

Spain: 44%

Portugal: 22%

Long term effect on literacy

  • Italian experimental scientist:
    • Showed that earth must revolve around sun
    • Published in Italian, not Latin
  • Condemned by the Church for heresy: 1633
    • Forced to confess error
    • Huge blow for Italian science
    • Church finally forgave Galileo 1981

isaac newton
Isaac Newton
  • English scientist
    • born the year Galileo died, 1642
  • Invented calculus
  • Discoveries in:
    • Optics, Gravitation, Motion, Mechanics
  • Built on discoveries of :
    • Kepler, Copernicus, Galileo
  • Founder of modern physical science

why early leaders declined
Why Early Leaders Declined
  • Spain and Portugal
    • very wealthy in 16th century
      • from New World gold
    • Spent money on wars and luxuries
    • Did not have to make things
      • could buy them
    • Did not have to improve agriculture
      • could buy food
    • Eventually money ran out

why early leaders declined24
Why Early Leaders Declined
  • Italy was a renaissance center of trade and manufacture
    • But no colonies in New World
    • Old power structures prevented change

Venice, Italy


dutch east indies company 1602 1798
Dutch East Indies Company1602-1798
  • Netherlands
    • Half the population lived in cities: industrial
    • Prosperous shipping, trading: Middlemen
    • Money lending allowed
    • Protestant
  • Spain wages war on Protestantism in Netherlands
  • Dutch send own ships to Indian Ocean:
    • Dutch East Indies Company

dutch east indies company 1602 179827
Dutch East Indies Company1602-1798
  • Soon dominant in Spice Trade
  • Virtual Monopoly on spice Islands of Indonesia

Dutch East Indies

british rise
British Rise
  • British pirates
    • better ships, guns
  • American Colonies
    • settled by dissidents to start a new life
  • Britain ahead of Europe in
    • Textiles
    • Iron
    • Coal
    • Agriculture
    • Roads
    • Freedoms

Queen Elizabeth, 1600

industrial revolution29
Industrial Revolution
  • Started in England late 1700s
    • cotton spinning
  • Produced goods for the masses
  • Fortunes made
    • age of unrestrained capitalism
  • Raw materials came from colonies.
    • Manufactured in Europe
    • Colonies were guaranteed markets for manufactured goods
industrial revolution31
Industrial Revolution
  • Spawned abuses of labor:
    • women, children
    • sometimes chained to machines
  • Rich became richer: dominated world
  • Inequity of wealth
    • led to Socialism, Communism in Europe

why england
Why England?
  • Open society
    • Individual initiative
    • social mobility
  • Political liberty
    • Open debate
    • Property rights
  • Center of scientific revolution
    • Isaac Newton
      • Principia Mathematica, 1687

Isaac Newton

why england33
Why England?
  • Geographical advantages
    • Island nation
      • Extensive sea trade
      • Less risk of invasion
    • Navigable rivers
      • Internal trade
    • Good agricultural climate
    • Proximity to N. America
      • Raw materials
    • Coal abundant
      • Fueled Industrial Revolution

fossil fuels made industrial revolution possible
Fossil FuelsMade Industrial Revolution possible
  • Coal powered steam engines
    • Transportation
    • Industrial production on huge scale
      • Textiles, clothes
      • Steel
      • Fertilizer
      • Chemicals
      • Pharmaceuticals
  • By 20th Century
    • Service industries
    • Communications
    • Electrification
british in india
British in India
  • Set up trade in India
  • Corrupt Mogul Empire in India
    • ignores British gains
  • British soon control India
  • Export cotton from India to Britain
  • Machine cotton spinning in Britain
    • starts industrial revolution
  • British empire expands
    • Africa, Asia, Australia

british imperialism38
British Imperialism

british empire at its peak controlled one sixth of humanity
British EmpireAt its peak controlled one sixth of humanity

imperialist expansion
Imperialist Expansion


Military domination



Domination of Resources and Markets

Religious and cultural justification

european imperialism 1700s 1800s
European Imperialism1700s-1800s
  • Other European countries scramble to set up colonies all over world
    • France
    • Belgium
    • Germany
    • Denmark

african colonialism
African Colonialism
  • “When the missionaries came to Africa they had the Bible and we had the land. They said, 'Let us pray.' We closed our eyes. When we opened them we had the Bible and they had the land.”
  • – Bishop Desmond Tutu

Bishop Desmond Tutu, Nobel Prize winner 1984

spanish colonies south and central america
Spanish Colonies: South and Central America
  • “Spain transmitted to us everything it had:
    • its language,
    • its architecture,
    • its religion,
    • its dress and its food,
    • its military tradition and
    • its judicial and civil institutions;
    • wheat,
    • livestock,
    • sugar cane,
    • even our dogs and chickens….

spanish colonies
Spanish Colonies
  • “But we couldn’t receive from Spain Western methods of
    • production and
    • distribution,
    • technique,
    • capital, and the
    • ideas of European society,
  • because Spain didn’t have them.”

--Juan Bosch, first democratically elected president of the Dominican Republic

westward expansion of the u s a
Westward Expansion of the U.S.A.

native americans
Native Americans

u s policies toward native americans
U.S. Policies toward Native Americans
  • “The immediate objectives are the total destruction and devastation of their settlements. It will be essential to ruin their crops in the ground and prevent their planting more”
    • President George Washington

u s policies toward native americans49
U.S. Policies toward Native Americans
  • “If it be the Design of Providence to Extirpate these Savages in order to make room for Cultivators of the Earth, it seems not improbable that Rum may be the appointed means”
    • Benjamin Franklin

u s policies toward native americans50
U.S. Policies toward Native Americans
  • “This unfortunate race, whom we had been taking so much pains to save and to civilize, have by their unexpected desertion and ferocious barbarities justified extermination and now await our decision on their fate”
    • President Thomas Jefferson

u s policies toward native americans51
U.S. Policies toward Native Americans
  • “What is the right of the huntsman to the forest of a thousand miles over which he has accidentally ranged in quest of prey?
    • President John Quincy Adams

u s policies toward native americans52
U.S. Policies toward Native Americans
  • “The hunter or savage state requires a greater extent of territory to sustain it, than is compatible with the progress and just claims of civilized life … and must yield to it.”
    • President James Monroe

u s policies toward native americans53
U.S. Policies toward Native Americans
  • “They have neither the intelligence, the industry, the moral habits, nor the desire of improvement which are essential to any favorable change in their condition. Established in the midst of another and a superior race, and without appreciating the causes of their inferiority or seeking to control them, they must necessarily yield to the force of circumstances and ere long disappear”
    • President Andrew Jackson

u s policies toward native americans54
U.S. Policies toward Native Americans
  • “The tribes of Indians inhabiting this country were savages, whose occupation was war, and whose subsistence was drawn from the forest…That law which regulates, and ought to regulate in general, the relations between the conquerer and conquered was incapable of application to a people under such circumstances. Discovery [of America by Europeans] gave an exclusive right to extinguish the Indian title of occupancy, either by purchase or by conquest.”
    • Chief Justice John Marshall (served 1801-1835)

u s policies toward native americans55
U.S. Policies toward Native Americans
  • “Is one of the fairest portions of the globe to remain in a state of nature, the haunt of a few wretched savages, when it seems destined by the Creator to give support to a large population and to be the seat of civilization?”
    • President William Henry Harrison

u s policies toward native americans56
U.S. Policies toward Native Americans
  • "The buffalo are disappearing rapidly, but not faster than I desire. I regard the destruction of such game as Indians subsist upon as facilitating the policy of the Government, of destroying their hunting habits, coercing them on reservations, and compelling them to begin to adopt the habits of civilization."
    • Secretary of the Interior Delano, 1874

u s policies toward native americans57
U.S. Policies toward Native Americans
  • “If I would hear that every Buffalo in the northern herd were killed, I would be glad.”
  • “The only good Indians I ever saw were dead.”
    • General Philip Sheridan

u s policies toward native americans58
U.S. Policies toward Native Americans
  • “The settler and pioneer have at bottom had justice on their side; this great continent could not have been kept as nothing but a game preserve for squalid savages.”
    • President Theodore Roosevelt

u s westward expansion
U.S. Westward Expansion


Policies toward Native Americans



Western land and resources

Religious and cultural justification

mark twain
Mark Twain
  • “All the territorial possessions of all the political establishments in the earth--including America, of course-- consist of pilferings from other people's wash. No tribe, howsoever insignificant, and no nation, howsoever mighty occupies a foot of land that was not stolen.”

-- Mark Twain

age of imperialism62
Age of Imperialism
  • Diffusion of wealth occurred
    • From Britain to its colonies
      • USA, Australia, New Zealand
    • From N. Europe to S. Europe
      • Railroads built
      • Serfdom ended
      • Industry financed by capital
    • From Europe to the world
      • Latin America
      • Asia
      • Africa

age of imperialism63
Age of Imperialism
  • European wealth = power
  • Exploitation of Africa, Asia
    • Forced Africans to grow cash crops
    • Head taxes forced Africans to work in mines and plantations
      • Sometimes hundreds of miles away from family
    • Natural resources taken
    • Private armies ensured compliance
      • With military force from home country as backup

British cannon used to execute rebels in India, 1857

wwi clash of imperialist powers
WWI: clash of imperialist powers
  • Germany
  • Russia
  • France
  • England
  • U.S.
  • Ottoman Empire

wwii reaction to wwi
WWII: Reaction to WWI
  • Germany
  • Japan
  • Britain
  • France
  • U.S.
  • Russia
  • China

Axis Powers

cold war reaction to wwii
Cold War: Reaction to WWII
  • First world: Western Europe and allies
  • Second world: Russia, China and allies
  • Third world: former colonies in Africa, Asia, Americas

Iron Curtain

u s dual course after wwii competing with ussr for influence in third world
U.S. Dual Course after WWIICompeting with USSR for Influence in Third World

Military Intervention

--Korea, Vietnam, etc.

Promoted Ag in Third World

-- Green Revolution


First World


Food, Resources

Third World

terrorism reaction to inequity
Terrorism: Reaction to Inequity
  • Powerlessness
    • Economic
    • Military
  • Desperation
    • Nothing to lose
    • Religious motivation
  • State sponsored
    • Cuba
    • Iran
    • North Korea
    • Syria
    • Sudan


hunger today
Hunger Today

Colonialism, economic domination, and repressive governments have had a huge impact on World Hunger.