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Modern World History

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  1. Modern World History From the Age of Discovery to the Present Sources: The Wealth and Poverty of Nations Landes, 1999 The End of Poverty Sachs, 2005 Wikipedia

  2. Haves Plants easy to domesticate Animals easy to domesticate East-west continent orientation Similar climate Crops move easily Culture follows Successful Agriculture Population explosion Metallurgy Ships Writing Fierce warfare Have-nots No No No No Or later Agricultural Revolution

  3. Haves Many competing countries Expanded trade Without regulation Raw materials Colonies Iron, coal Individual freedoms Ideas, science Literacy, books Economic, social Technologies Power: coal, water Optics Machinery Big guns Have-nots No No Government control No Or undeveloped No Conservative religion Social, economic hierarchies No Industrial Revolution http://www.askasia.org/images/teachers/display/41.jpg

  4. Age of Discovery: 15th-16th century http://www.hyperhistory.com

  5. Early World Powers: Portugal and Spain • Portugal • Discovers Brazil • By sailing south around tip of Africa to find India • Dominant force in Indian Ocean • Early Monopoly on Spice Trade • Spain • New World Colonies extracted for wealth: gold • Plantation system • Slavery http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/db/Bartolomeu_dia_cape_of_good_hope.jpg

  6. Colonies: 1700s

  7. Colonial Economic System Empire Conquest Wealth, Taxes Food, Resources Colonies

  8. New World Slave Trade http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/chimage.php?image=2007/2043/triangle_map.jpg

  9. Slave Trade Triangle • Slaves captured or bought in Africa • Shipped to Caribbean to work on Sugar plantations • Slaves traded for sugar • Sugar traded in Europe for manufactured goods • European manufactured goods traded in Africa for slaves Slave Trade Triangle http://www.geocities.com/ks3history/c_map.jpg

  10. Slave Trade

  11. Caribbean http://www.wwnorton.com/college/history/worlds/images/map4_3.jpg

  12. African slaves in the New World http://i97.photobucket.com/albums/l213/blackcuz727/African_Slave_Trade.gif

  13. Agricultural Slavery Economy Government Legalized Slavery Economy Ideology Agriculture depends on Slavery Religion Justified Slavery

  14. Noah cursed Ham’s son: "Cursed be Canaan! The lowest of slaves will he be to his brothers. He also said, 'Blessed be the Lord, the God of Shem! May Canaan be the slave of Shem. May God extend the territory of Japheth; may Japheth live in the tents of Shem and may Canaan be his slave'. " Genesis 9:25-27 Descendents of Ham were thought to inhabit Africa This was used to justify African slavery Religious Justification for Slavery Curse of Ham http://bp0.blogger.com/_mo-4yOXmj64/SB3TSHotapI/AAAAAAAAABo/TyhSyVUY5Q0/s1600-h/HamLeavesNoah.jpg

  15. Agricultural Slavery Economy Owners Food Production Labor Slave Population

  16. Slavery in Islamic Countries • Slavery permitted in Koran • Muhammad owned slaves • Non-Muslims enslaved in Jihad • Freeing of slaves encouraged • More women enslaved • For domestic help, harems • Sex outside of marriage permitted with female slaves • Not primarily for agriculture • Men often castrated • Some used as warriors • Breeding of slaves not common • Needed to be constantly imported • Millions from Africa over 14 centuries • Death tolls high • Abolished in 20th century • Persists in Sudan, Mauritania Zanzibar Slave Market, 1860s http://cache.eb.com/eb/image?id=78400&rendTypeId=4

  17. Protestant Reformation: 16th century • Germany, Netherlands, England • Freedom from authority of Church • Reading Bible in common language • Triggers new thought and science • Where the industrial revolution began Martin Luther http://truereligiondebate.files.wordpress.com/2008/04/martin-luther.jpg

  18. Protestant Reformation http://www.lincolncs.org/5-6/Studies/images/armada/Map%20of%20Reformation.gif

  19. Counter Reformation • Spain, Portugal, Italy • Repression of new ideas • Ban on foreign books • education suffered • Heresies punished • to preserve Church • Inquisition: • Protestants, Jews, Moslems • Fell behind in technology http://www.geocities.com/capitolhill/3231/Jewish-Community-Of-Malta/torture.png

  20. Literacy in 1900 Britain : 97% Italy: 52% Spain: 44% Portugal: 22% Long term effect on literacy http://z.about.com/d/denver/1/0/p/3/-/-/InspiringImpressionism_Fragonard.jpg

  21. Galileo • Italian experimental scientist: • Showed that earth must revolve around sun • Published in Italian, not Latin • Condemned by the Church for heresy: 1633 • Forced to confess error • Huge blow for Italian science • Church finally forgave Galileo 1981 http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/image/0110/galileo_sustermans.jpg

  22. Isaac Newton • English scientist • born the year Galileo died, 1642 • Invented calculus • Discoveries in: • Optics, Gravitation, Motion, Mechanics • Built on discoveries of : • Kepler, Copernicus, Galileo • Founder of modern physical science http://astronomy.meta.org/monatlich/0601_monatsthema.html

  23. Why Early Leaders Declined • Spain and Portugal • very wealthy in 16th century • from New World gold • Spent money on wars and luxuries • Did not have to make things • could buy them • Did not have to improve agriculture • could buy food • Eventually money ran out http://www.dover-kent.co.uk/people/images/pic_elizabeth_i_armada.jpg

  24. Why Early Leaders Declined • Italy was a renaissance center of trade and manufacture • But no colonies in New World • Old power structures prevented change Venice, Italy http://www.univie.ac.at/Anglistik/aaas/route66/class/travel/613venice.jpg

  25. http://www.cosmeo.com/images/pictures/player/ef6d4a81-0aae-84f2-dd21bf9627f59efc.jpghttp://www.cosmeo.com/images/pictures/player/ef6d4a81-0aae-84f2-dd21bf9627f59efc.jpg

  26. Dutch East Indies Company1602-1798 • Netherlands • Half the population lived in cities: industrial • Prosperous shipping, trading: Middlemen • Money lending allowed • Protestant • Spain wages war on Protestantism in Netherlands • Dutch send own ships to Indian Ocean: • Dutch East Indies Company http://farm2.static.flickr.com/1275/737549497_ba36f06860.jpg?v=0

  27. Dutch East Indies Company1602-1798 • Soon dominant in Spice Trade • Virtual Monopoly on spice Islands of Indonesia Dutch East Indies http://content.answers.com/main/content/wp/en-commons/c/c2/DutchEmpire.png

  28. British Rise • British pirates • better ships, guns • American Colonies • settled by dissidents to start a new life • Britain ahead of Europe in • Textiles • Iron • Coal • Agriculture • Roads • Freedoms Queen Elizabeth, 1600 http://keidahl.terranhost.com/Spring/EUH3501England/ImagesElizabethI.htm

  29. Industrial Revolution • Started in England late 1700s • cotton spinning • Produced goods for the masses • Fortunes made • age of unrestrained capitalism • Raw materials came from colonies. • Manufactured in Europe • Colonies were guaranteed markets for manufactured goods

  30. Trade with colonies

  31. Industrial Revolution • Spawned abuses of labor: • women, children • sometimes chained to machines • Rich became richer: dominated world • Inequity of wealth • led to Socialism, Communism in Europe http://www.teacherlink.org/content/social/instructional/industrialrevolution/childmillworker.jpg

  32. Why England? • Open society • Individual initiative • social mobility • Political liberty • Open debate • Property rights • Center of scientific revolution • Isaac Newton • Principia Mathematica, 1687 Isaac Newton http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/newton/lega-02.html

  33. Why England? • Geographical advantages • Island nation • Extensive sea trade • Less risk of invasion • Navigable rivers • Internal trade • Good agricultural climate • Proximity to N. America • Raw materials • Coal abundant • Fueled Industrial Revolution http://www.culturalresources.com/images/maps/EngIndRevBig.jpg

  34. Fossil FuelsMade Industrial Revolution possible • Coal powered steam engines • Transportation • Industrial production on huge scale • Textiles, clothes • Steel • Fertilizer • Chemicals • Pharmaceuticals • By 20th Century • Service industries • Communications • Electrification

  35. Effect of the Industrial Revolution

  36. British in India • Set up trade in India • Corrupt Mogul Empire in India • ignores British gains • British soon control India • Export cotton from India to Britain • Machine cotton spinning in Britain • starts industrial revolution • British empire expands • Africa, Asia, Australia http://www.india-history.com/images/maps/india-in-1857.gif

  37. British Imperialism

  38. British Imperialism http://farm2.static.flickr.com/1280/1252641808_8cb370643a_o.jpg

  39. British EmpireAt its peak controlled one sixth of humanity http://users.erols.com/mwhite28/images/brit_emp.gif

  40. Imperialist Expansion Government Military domination Economy Ideology Domination of Resources and Markets Religious and cultural justification

  41. Russian Empire

  42. European Imperialism1700s-1800s • Other European countries scramble to set up colonies all over world • France • Belgium • Germany • Denmark http://001yourtranslationservice.com/translations/jobs/pics/Africa-European-Colonies.png

  43. African Colonialism • “When the missionaries came to Africa they had the Bible and we had the land. They said, 'Let us pray.' We closed our eyes. When we opened them we had the Bible and they had the land.” • – Bishop Desmond Tutu Bishop Desmond Tutu, Nobel Prize winner 1984 http://www.canal-st.co.uk/resources/168/4219/61/Tutu.jpg

  44. Spanish Colonies: South and Central America • “Spain transmitted to us everything it had: • its language, • its architecture, • its religion, • its dress and its food, • its military tradition and • its judicial and civil institutions; • wheat, • livestock, • sugar cane, • even our dogs and chickens…. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c6/Catedral_de_M%C3%A9xico.jpg

  45. Spanish Colonies • “But we couldn’t receive from Spain Western methods of • production and • distribution, • technique, • capital, and the • ideas of European society, • because Spain didn’t have them.” --Juan Bosch, first democratically elected president of the Dominican Republic

  46. Westward Expansion of the U.S.A. http://www.jackvallerga.com/wp-content/uploads/2007/08/terrexpan500.jpg

  47. Native Americans http://www.aaanativearts.com/Native_American_map.jpg

  48. U.S. Policies toward Native Americans • “The immediate objectives are the total destruction and devastation of their settlements. It will be essential to ruin their crops in the ground and prevent their planting more” • President George Washington http://www.visitingdc.com/images/george-washington-picture.jpg

  49. U.S. Policies toward Native Americans • “If it be the Design of Providence to Extirpate these Savages in order to make room for Cultivators of the Earth, it seems not improbable that Rum may be the appointed means” • Benjamin Franklin http://www.elcivics.com/images/benjamin-franklin.jpg

  50. U.S. Policies toward Native Americans • “This unfortunate race, whom we had been taking so much pains to save and to civilize, have by their unexpected desertion and ferocious barbarities justified extermination and now await our decision on their fate” • President Thomas Jefferson http://sttheresaschool.org/history/images/thomas-jefferson-picture.jpg