World War I 1914-1919 http://www.historyofwar.org/Maps/ww1_a_prewar.gif
Causes of WWI- M.A.I.N • MILITARISM • ALLIANCES • IMPERIALISM • NATIONALISM M.A.I.N.
Nationalism- Germany & France • Germany was feeling strong military and new industrial growth • France wanted to regain • power as was before • Congress of Vienna • Regain pride/territory lost during Franco-Prussian War in 1870
Nationalism- Eastern Europe • Russia- supported nationalism called Pan-Slavism • Russia defend all Slavs (Serbia) • Threatened Austria-Hungary and Ottoman Empires “POWDER KEG OF EUROPE”
Militarism- Glorification of Military • Part of Social Darwinism • Increase in size of armies and navies • Germany V. Britain expanded funding for navies (Why Britain?) http://www.mrswallace.com/Alliances/empiremap.jpg
Alliances- Central Vs. Allies Two Big Alliances: • Triple Alliance (1882) = Germany, Italy, and Austria-Hungary (Ottoman) • Triple Entente(1904) = France, Russia, and Britain (Japan) http://www.historyofwar.org/Maps/ww1_a_prewar.gif
Assassination- Immediate Cause • Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary was killed in Bosnia (nephew of Emperor) • Who/Why? Serbian (Slavs) nationalists wanted self-rule and end foreign government http://clio.rediris.es/udidactica/IGM/images/assassination_archduke_ferdinand.gif
Chain Reaction • Austria-Hungary got Germany’s support (declared war on Serbia) • Serbia got help from Russia (Germany declared war on Russia) • Russia asked for help from France (Germany declared war on France) • Italy and Britain remain neutral at first
“One out of every four men who went out to the World War did not come back again” The “Great War”
A Multi-Front War • German – von-Schleifen Plan • Will it work?
The Western Front • Russia won small victories at first led Germany to move troops from the west to the east • Stalemate deadlock http://www.uark.edu/campus-resources/mbracy/WesternFront.jpg
Trench Warfare • Dug out trenches • Hot summers, cold winters • “No man’s land” in between enemy trenches http://occawlonline.pearsoned.com/bookbind/pubbooks/divine5e/medialib/images/div0093.jpeg
Trench Warfare http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/FWWtrenchsystem.JPG
Trench Warfare “No Man’s Land”
Verdun – February, 1916 • German offensive. • Each side had 500,000 casualties.
The Somme – July, 1916 • 60,000 British soldiers killed in one day. • Over 1,000,000 killed in 5 months.
Battles- Takes a Toll • 1916- attacks to break the stalemate • 11 month struggle that cost ½ million deaths on both sides (Verdun) • 1 million killed at Somme River with no side gaining an advantage http://www.bergoiata.org/fe/digit/Digital%20Art%20-%20Chess%20board%20by%20Joe%20Wallis%20-%202002.jpg
Fighting in Africa Black Soldiers in the German Schutztruppen[German E. Africa] British Sikh Mounstain Gunner
Fighting in Africa 3rd British Battalion, Nigerian Brigade
Fighting in Salonika, Greece French colonial marine infantry fromCochin, China - 1916
New Technology • Machine guns • Poison gas/gas masks (wind became problem) • Armored tank • Aircraft (zeppelins) • 5. German U-Boats • Convoys
Machine Guns http://freepages.military.rootsweb.com/~worldwarone/WWI/Weapons/images/machinegun-grenades-sm.jpg
Poison Gas http://www.firstworldwar.com/photos/graphics/ww_gas_train_01.jpg
Armored Tank http://www.nysl.nysed.gov/library/features/featmo/images/wwi_tank.jpg