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South Carolina Economic Summit. Douglas P. Woodward Director, Division of Research Moore School of Business University of South Carolina. Overview of Remarks. Porter’s main points about competitiveness Long-run prosperity: raise per capita income Support clusters

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south carolina economic summit

South CarolinaEconomic Summit

Douglas P. Woodward

Director, Division of Research

Moore School of Business

University of South Carolina

overview of remarks
Overview of Remarks
  • Porter’s main points about competitiveness
    • Long-run prosperity: raise per capita income
    • Support clusters
    • Develop innovative capacity
  • How do we measure up against other states?
    • Per capita income
    • Innovative capacity and human capital
porter s stages of competitive development

Factor-Driven Economy

Investment-Driven Economy

Innovation- Driven Economy

Porter’s Stages of Competitive Development



Unique Value

Efficiency Through

Heavy Investment

Source: Porter, Michael E., The Competitive Advantage of Nations, The Free Press, 1990

clusters advance competitiveness
Clusters advance competitiveness
  • What are clusters?
    • A critical mass of firms in a particular industry and related industries
    • Shared activities, technologies, channels, customer relationships, logistics and transportation
  • Geographically concentrated, deeply rooted
cluster participants
Cluster participants
  • Supplier industries
  • Downstream or channel industries
  • Providers of specialized services
  • Financial institutions
  • Infrastructure providers
  • Educational and training institutions
clusters and productivity
Clusters increase productivity and efficiency

Efficient access to specialized inputs, services, employees, information, institutions, and “public goods” (e.g. training programs)

Ease of coordination and transactions across firms

Rapid diffusion of best practices

Ongoing, visible performance comparisons and strong incentives to improve vs. local rivals

Clusters and Productivity
higher per capita income
Higher Per Capita Income
  • Higher productivity = higher income
  • How does South Carolina rank?
  • Are we building a higher-income economy?
per capita income in south carolina in 2004
Per Capita Income in South Carolina in 2004
  • South Carolina: $27,153
    • United States average: $33,041
  • S.C. as percent of U.S.: 82.2 %
    • Up from 81.8 % in 2000
  • Rank: 43rd in the nation
states with similar patterns
States with similar patterns
  • These states are not statistically different from South Carolina, according to average per capita personal income and average median household income
south carolina united states households income and benefits 2003 inflation adjusted dollars
South Carolina & United States Households Income and Benefits (2003 inflation adjusted-dollars)

Source: US Census Bureau- American Community Survey 2003 Multi-Year Profile 2003.

long run competitiveness
Long-run Competitiveness
  • Innovative capacity
  • Creative, knowledge occupations
  • Supports cluster development
  • Measures: creative occupations and innovation capacity by state
  • How does South Carolina rank?
long run competitiveness indicators
Long-run Competitiveness Indicators
  • Knowledge occupations
    • Managers, professional, and technicians as a share of total workforce
    • Educational attainment of the workforce
  • Innovation capacity
    • High-tech jobs
    • R & D as a percentage of Gross State Product
    • Patents per 1,000 workers
determinants of per capita income 1
Determinants of Per Capita Income, 1
  • Per Capita Income Level 2002
  • Explanatory variables
    • Human capital (Percent of population with BS degree)
    • Patents
    • University R&D
  • R-squared: The fraction of variation in the dependent variable that is explained by variation in the independent variable. A high value indicates a strong relationship between the two variables.
  • Regression with human capital (BS percent), patents, and Univ R&D explains has R-squared of 56% with each variable significantly positive at better than the 1% level.
  • With state controls, the R-squared is 62% and each variable maintains a positive and significant impact)
determinants of per capita income 2
Determinants of Per Capita Income, 2
  • Per Capita Income Growth
    • Explaining variation in per capita income growth from 1997 to 2002 with the same variables
    • Regression on levels of: BS percent, patents, university R&D, and initial per capita income level (and state controls)
  • This has an R-squared of 26%..  
  • The variables are significant and the right sign
    • Positive for BS Percent, Patents, University R&D, and negative for initial income level (consistent with conditional convergence).  
    • Patents are significant at the 3 percent level,
    • Everything else at better than 1 percent.
knowledge occupations
Knowledge Occupations

There is a high correlation between education attainment and managerial and professional occupations

Source: US Bureau of Census

South Carolina in both cases is below the U.S. average

knowledge jobs creative class
Knowledge Jobs, Creative Class

Percentage of management, professional and related occupations as a share of total workforce

Bachelor’s degree or higher

(percentage of persons age 25 +)

Source: U.S. Bureau of Census and Science and Engineering indicators 2004.

innovation capacity r d as a percentage of gross state product
Innovation Capacity—R&D as a Percentage of Gross State Product

The top five states and South Carolina

Source: Science & Engineering indicators 2004.

innovative capacity
Innovative Capacity

A state with a high intensity of R&D activity supports higher proportion of high tech jobs.

Source: Science & Engineering indicators 2004.

innovative performance patents per 1 000 workers
Innovative Performance: Patents per 1,000 Workers
  • Patent per workers as a measure of new product innovation shows minor changes among the top ten states. Only the significant improvement of Idaho and Vermont and the modest increase of New Jersey.
  • South Carolina is behind the U.S. average.

Source: US Patent and Trademark Office and US Bureau of Census.


Porter’s Path




Innovative Capacity

Porter’s theory

“There are no low-tech industries, only low-tech firms”

porter s prescription shifting responsibilities for economic development
Porter’s Prescription: Shifting Responsibilities for Economic Development

Old Model

New Model

  • Government drives economic development through policy decisions and incentives
  • Economic development is a collaborative process involving government at multiple levels, private companies, teaching and research institutions, and new institutions for collaboration