Chapter 14.1 Feudalism and the Manor System In Europe (c.500 – 1500) • Objectives: • Learn when the Middle Ages were and what they were like • Find out how land and power were divided under feudalism. • Learn how the manor system worked. • Discover what life was like for peasants and serfs.
When were the Middle Ages? The Fall of Rome marked the end of the ancient world and the beginning of a new era. The new time period is known as the Middle Ages, or the Medieval Period or the Dark Ages. This period lasted until about 1450.
Knight A man who received honor and land in exchange for serving a lord as a soldier. He was expected to be loyal to the lord who knighted him.
Charlemagne- the king of the Franks (put under name) The Franks invaded Gaul. He expanded his kingdom by conquering smaller ones. He ruled for nearly 50 years and spread the Christian religion. After his death, his empire was divided among his sons who fought against each other.
Why did Charlemagne's empire fall apart? • He divided his empire into three parts for each of his sons. • His sons fought one another, which weakened the empire. • See their names- • Charles, Louis, and Lothair (lots of hair) • Vikings attacked the weakened empire.
Feudalism A system where land was owned by kings but held by lords and vassals in return for their loyalty. Lords Lords
Fief A fief is a grantof something of value, most often land, from a king to his lord or to his vassal.
Vassal • A vassal could be a lord. • They were expected to raise armies then lead the armies that would fight for their land. • They also paid taxes (in the form of crops) to their lords.
What did lords give vassals in exchange for the vassals’ loyalty? • Lords provided their vassals with land. • The lords also asked for their advice before making laws or going to war.
Manor A manor is a large estate that included farm fields, pastures, and often an entire village.
Lord of the Manor Usually a vassal of a king or a more powerful lord. Their duties included: • They ruled the people on his manor • They made rules and acted as a judge • They chose someone to oversee the farming and other daily work • They collected taxes from peasants
She is the lady of the manor. Her duties included: Noblewomen • She managed the household • She supervised servants • She performed any necessary medical tasks • She also acted as the “lord of the manor” when the lord was gone.
Peasants This group made up the majority of people during the Middle Ages. They made their living as farmers and laborers.
Serfs Serfs are peasants who were considered to be part of the manor.
Peasant Life Peasants were responsible for: • raising food for the lord • and raising food for their family
What was life like for medieval peasants? Peasants had a hard life because: • All men, women, and children were required to work • They gave most of their harvest to their lord • They lived in cramped one-room huts • They slept on cloth sacks stuffed with straw