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Chapter 3

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  1. Chapter 3 Morphology

  2. Grammar Safari (xtra credit) • Find a morphemically creative word • From a naturally occurring source • Tell us: • What the word means • How you know (what each morpheme means) • Tree it (we’ll see how to do this later) • Example: • On next slide…

  3. Safari Example • Word: • Bugetarian • Meaning: • One who eats only bugs • How I know • Bug= “root • -etary= having to do with • -ian= one who does…(compare “vegetarian) • Tree: Noun (Noun) -etary(N or Adj) -ian(N) Bug(root)

  4. What’s Missing? was very chalant, despite my efforts to appear gruntled and consolate. I was furling my wieldy umbrella… when I saw her… She was a descript person… Her hair was kempt, her clothing shevelled, and she moved in a gainly way. What’s the pattern in the missing stuff? I

  5. Little Sounds Mean a Lot • What are functions of prefixes & suffixes? • Prefixes/Suffixes = Morphemes • Make a list – • List as many as you can in 1 minute • Which morphemes change the meaning? • What do the others do?

  6. Formal Definition: Morpheme • Smallest unit of meaning in a language • Not necessarily independent • Creative potential • Each has only one meaning

  7. Just Do it: Creating Words • Define “Blog” (noun, verb) • Define “Blogger” (noun only) • Create an ADJ = “like an opinionated posting” • “That sounds a little ____________________.” • Create another ADJ • “I don’t trust her ______________ pronouncements.” • Create an ADV = “as a blogger would do something” • “Jack always writes so ___________________.” • Create a NOUN = “the act of a person who blogs” • “She’s doing a bit of _________________” • In the New York Times William Safire wrote about the “Blogiverse” What do you suppose he meant? Exercise 3.1

  8. Words like “Blogosphere” are: • Dumb – they should always be avoided • OK in comics strips – not in ‘real life’ • ‘Avante Guarde’ – to be used by the daring • Great – use them whenever possible

  9. Extremely Morph-y • Antidisestablishmentarianism • How many morphemes are there? • 3 • 5 • 7 • 9 • None of the above

  10. Extremely Morph-y • Antidisestablishmentarianism • Identify the morphemes… • What does each morpheme mean? • Which are bound? • Which are free?

  11. Derivational Morpheme • A morpheme which causes a word to change in meaning &/or grammatical category • (anti-dis-establish-ment-ari-an-ism) • anti = meaning change • dis = meaning change • establish = free root • ment = grammatical change (V  N) • ari (ary) = grammatical change (N  Adj) • (i)an = grammatical change (Adj  N) • ism = meaning change

  12. List Some Others… • Bound Morphemes(No need to make real words…) • Free Morphemes(No need to make real words…)

  13. Did You Get It? • How many morphemes are in “Unexpectedly” • 1 • 3 • 5 • 7

  14. Did You Get This, Too? • How many BOUND morphemes are in “Destandardize” • 1 • 2 • 3 • 4

  15. Tree: Unexpectedly ADV ADJ VERB VERB expect(verb) ed(past) ly(adj adv) Un(not)

  16. You Try It: Destandardize verb verb noun ize(NV) Stand(verb) ard(VN) De(not)

  17. Do On Your Own • Outside of class… • Exercise 3.2 p. 40 • Exercise 3.3 p. 40 – 42 • Exercise 3.4 p. 42 The chart at the bottom of page 41 may be helpful

  18. Find Your Own • Using your Grammar & Communication paper, find a word with: • At least 4 morphemes • At least 2 FREE morphemes • At least 2 suffix morphemes

  19. Questions Before we move on…?

  20. Tell Me About It… • Manching my swiltestfresnep all day, the tunkles are bronking to murple a set of swazzlingphubren! • Label the Part of Speech (POS) of the underlined words… (N, V, ADJ, ADV) • What morphemes helped you decide?

  21. Think About It • List the morphemes that we saw above • Are these derivational morphemes? • What do these morphemes do? • Put the morphemes on other words • Put the new words in sentences • Think about what you see…

  22. Key Vocab: Inflectional Morpheme • A morpheme that marks words for grammatical class WITHOUTchanging the basic meaning

  23. Inflection In English: • Nouns Plural: ___ , Possessive: ___ • Verbs Tense/Person ___, ___, ___, ___ • Adj/Adv Comparative/Superlative ___, ___

  24. English Inflectional Morphemes

  25. Inflection (FYI) • Marking a word for a grammatical class • Plural • Possessive • Tense • Contrast • Gender • Gram. Class • Person’s Role • Etc. } English } Other Languages

  26. Did You Get It? • How many morphemes are in: The cakes were eaten • 1 • 2 • 3 • 4

  27. Did You Get It? • How many morphemes are in: The cakes were eaten • 1 • 2 • 3 • 4

  28. Did You Get It? • How many morphemes are in: The cakes were eaten • 1 • 2 • 3 • 4

  29. Did You Get It? - Challenge • How many morphemes are in photographers’ • 2 • 3 • 4 • 5

  30. Find as Many of the Eight Inflections as You Can… … in your G & C paper

  31. Just Do It • Exercises • 3.5 (p. 48-49) • 3.6 (p. 49)

  32. What’s the function of the present tense here? • The birds are watching the tree go away now • It’s habitual – the tree disappears every week • It’s currently relevant - The birds just noticed • This example does not use the present tense

  33. And another exercise… … related point:

  34. I Told You Earlier • Each morpheme as only one meaning • But what about: • dogs • writes • And on the flip side…. (next slide) They are kind of like…

  35. Allomorphs • Readable • Readability • Incredible • Unbelievable • Other pairs?

  36. Zero Allomorph • Verb • I cut the cards (yesterday or everyday) • ______ (another example?) • Noun • Deer (1 or ‘more than one’) • ______ (another example?)

  37. More Funky Stuff… …on the next slide

  38. Functional Shift • Each of these words can fill 2 (or more) functions Record Cap Fly Heavy Result Seat Finish Yellow • What functions does each word fill? • How does the meaning shift for each? • Now add morphemes… What can you create? Exercise 3.7

  39. Did You Get It? - Challenge • How many Parts of Speech (POS) can we make using morphemes added to: High • 1 • 2 • 3 • 4 Show each POS in a sentence…

  40. Derivation vs. Inflection See also chart on page 55

  41. Find & Correct the Error • As I read the article by Julia P. Stanley on Homosexual Slang, a lot of things came as a surprise, however something’s were familiar because of my relationship with homosexual peers. • Hint: Look at inflectional morphemes

  42. Find & Correct Again • After gathering drawings of embryonic fish, salamander, hog, calf, rabbit, and human, Haeckel discovered that they all appeared similar in the earliest stages of development. • How does morphology matter here?

  43. Any Morphological Errors… … in your G & C paper?

  44. Do It • Exercise 3.11 • Morphing & Unmorphables (p. 56) • Review Exercises • pp. 57-58 NOTE: All the exercises in the text are relevant & good – even those that aren’t listed in the slides…

  45. For “Tomorrow” • TPQ on Chapter 3 • Begin reading Chapter 4