Notes – Chapter 21. Revolutions in Europe and Latin America. Conflict of Ideologies. Conservatives Supported traditional monarchies/social classes Backed an established church Believed talk of natural rights and constitutions would lead to chaos (as it had in France in 1789) Liberals
Revolutions in Europe and Latin America
Several large empires (Austrian, Russian, Ottoman) contained people of diverse ethnic groups. As the idea of nationalism spread, some of these groups had the goal of separating from the empire and creating their own homelands.
Serbia and Greece each won autonomy/independence from Ottomans after 300 years of Ottoman rule.
Congress of Vienna restored Louis XVIII to the throne.
Louis set up a constitutional monarchy (did not satisfy ultraroyalistsor liberals).
After Louis’ death, his brother Charles X inherited the throne and tried to restore absolute monarchy.
Led to Revolution of 1830 and the abdication of Charles X
In both 1830 and 1848, the revolts in Paris inspired uprisings to break out elsewhere in Europe.
Metternich said, “When France sneezes, Europe catches cold.”
Most uprisings were suppressed by military force, but a few were successful.
Belgium won independence in 1831.
It became an independent state with a liberal constitution.
1848 – A revolt in Vienna led to Metternich’s resignation.
Austrian emperor promised reform.
Hungarian and Czech nationalists demanded independent governments.
Austrian government agreed, but reforms were temporary.
Nationalists in Italy wanted to end Hapsburg domination.
Rebels set up independent republics in Venice, Naples, etc.
The Pope was expelled from Rome.
Soon Austrian and French armies had restored Italy to previous status.
In 1804, Haiti achieved independence from France.
Became only non-slave nation in Western Hemisphere.
When Napoleon conquered Portugal, the Portuguese royal family fled to Brazil.
When they returned to Portugal, Dom Pedro (son of the Portuguese king) remained to rule Brazil.
At his father’s advice, when Brazilians demanded independence in 1822, Dom Pedro declared himself emperor of an independent Brazil.
Brazil remained a constitutional monarchy until 1889.