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Notes – Chapter 21. Revolutions in Europe and Latin America. Conflict of Ideologies. Conservatives Supported traditional monarchies/social classes Backed an established church Believed talk of natural rights and constitutions would lead to chaos (as it had in France in 1789) Liberals

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Notes – Chapter 21

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notes chapter 21

Notes – Chapter 21

Revolutions in Europe and Latin America

conflict of ideologies
Conflict of Ideologies
  • Conservatives
    • Supported traditional monarchies/social classes
    • Backed an established church
    • Believed talk of natural rights and constitutions would lead to chaos (as it had in France in 1789)
  • Liberals
    • Wanted government based on written constitution and separation of powers
    • Supported freedom of religion
    • Defended natural rights and called for rulers elected by people
conflict of ideologies1
Conflict of Ideologies
  • Nationalism – a strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one’s country or national group
    • Gave people with a common heritage a sense of identity and the goal of creating their own homeland
    • Often bred intolerance and led to persecution of other ethnic or national groups
conflict of ideologies2
Conflict of Ideologies
  • Congress of Vienna
    • Controlled by conservatives (such as Austrian Prince Metternich)
    • Tried to restore Europe to pre-French Revolution ideas and situations
    • Redrew national boundaries without any concern for national cultures – did not recognize how important nationalism would become
large empires
Large Empires

Several large empires (Austrian, Russian, Ottoman) contained people of diverse ethnic groups. As the idea of nationalism spread, some of these groups had the goal of separating from the empire and creating their own homelands.

Serbia and Greece each won autonomy/independence from Ottomans after 300 years of Ottoman rule.


Congress of Vienna restored Louis XVIII to the throne.

Louis set up a constitutional monarchy (did not satisfy ultraroyalistsor liberals).

After Louis’ death, his brother Charles X inherited the throne and tried to restore absolute monarchy.

Led to Revolution of 1830 and the abdication of Charles X

  • Legislature chose Louis Philippe (Charles’ cousin) as king.
    • “citizen king” because he owed throne to people
    • Favored middle class
  • In 1848 recession led to discontent.
    • Turmoil spread.
    • Louis Philippe abdicated.
  • Revolution of 1848
    • Set up republic with a strong president and one-house legislature
    • Gave ALL adult men the right to vote
  • Overwhelming winner in presidential elections was Louis Napoleon, nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte
  • By 1852 Louis Napoleon had proclaimed himself emperor, taking the title Napoleon III.

In both 1830 and 1848, the revolts in Paris inspired uprisings to break out elsewhere in Europe.

Metternich said, “When France sneezes, Europe catches cold.”

Most uprisings were suppressed by military force, but a few were successful.


Belgium won independence in 1831.

It became an independent state with a liberal constitution.


1848 – A revolt in Vienna led to Metternich’s resignation.

Austrian emperor promised reform.

Hungarian and Czech nationalists demanded independent governments.

Austrian government agreed, but reforms were temporary.


Nationalists in Italy wanted to end Hapsburg domination.

Rebels set up independent republics in Venice, Naples, etc.

The Pope was expelled from Rome.

Soon Austrian and French armies had restored Italy to previous status.

german states
German States
  • Prussian King Frederick William IV forced to accept constitution.
    • Managed to keep most power in his own hands
  • Delegates from German states met in 1848 to discuss unification. (Frankfurt Assembly)
    • Many divisions
  • Frederick William offered crown of united Germany.
    • Rejected crown because it was offered by the not by the German princes but by the people (“from the gutter”).
  • Frankfurt Assembly dissolved in 1849 by Prussian military.
    • Liberals had been defeated.
    • Clash outside assembly led to death or imprisonment of many. Thousands of Germans emigrated to the U.S.
latin america haiti
Latin America – Haiti

In 1804, Haiti achieved independence from France.

Became only non-slave nation in Western Hemisphere.

latin america spanish colonies
Latin America – Spanish colonies
  • Napoleon’s invasion of Spain in 1808 and subsequent Spanish weakness led to many Spanish colonies seeking independence.
    • Mexico
    • United Provinces of Central America (later divided into separate republics)
    • Venezuela
    • Columbia
    • Ecuador
  • New governments
    • Power moves from peninsulares to creoles, but little else changes.
latin america brazil
Latin America -- Brazil

When Napoleon conquered Portugal, the Portuguese royal family fled to Brazil.

When they returned to Portugal, Dom Pedro (son of the Portuguese king) remained to rule Brazil.

At his father’s advice, when Brazilians demanded independence in 1822, Dom Pedro declared himself emperor of an independent Brazil.

Brazil remained a constitutional monarchy until 1889.