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a.k.a. “Pore bearers,” or sponges. By Albert Chen and Anne Ning. Porifera. http://www.southerncrafter.com/Bath%20Puff%20Sponges%20Assorted.gif Campbell, Neil A., and Jane B. Reece. Biology . 7th ed. San Francisco: Pearson, Benjamin Cummings, 2005. (textbook used on all slides).

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by albert chen and anne ning

a.k.a. “Pore bearers,” or sponges

By Albert Chen and Anne Ning

Porifera

http://www.southerncrafter.com/Bath%20Puff%20Sponges%20Assorted.gif

Campbell, Neil A., and Jane B. Reece. Biology. 7th ed. San Francisco: Pearson, Benjamin Cummings, 2005.

(textbook used on all slides)

http://www.southerncrafter.com/Bath%20Puff%20Sponges%20Assorted.gif

sponges
Sponges

Albert Chen

Anne Ning

http://blogs.discovery.com/photos/uncategorized/2008/10/29/ejb_051802_038_thumb_2.jpg

body cavity
Body Cavity
  • One central cavity called a spongocoel
  • Water enters the spongocoel through porocytes

Albert Chen

Anne Ning

http://www.mun.ca/biology/scarr/141995_Porifera.jpg

body symmetry
Body Symmetry
  • None

Nervous System

  • None
  • Individual cells respond
  • to the environment

Gas Exchange

  • Individual cells obtain the oxygen they need from their surroundings

Albert Chen

Anne Ning

http://www.palaeos.com/Invertebrates/Porifera/Images/rigida.jpg (left)

http://science.kennesaw.edu/~jdirnber/InvertZoo/LecPorifera/PoriVarietyp.gif (right)

circulatory system
Circulatory System
  • Water is circulated by the movement of choanocyte flagella
  • Nutrients from the water are circulated by amoebocytes

Albert Chen

Anne Ning

http://www.cartage.org.lb/en/themes/sciences/zoology/biologicaldiverstity/AnimalsI/sponge_1.gif

digestive system
Digestive System
  • Suspension feeders
  • Choanocytes move water, catch suspended food with their collars, and ingest it through phagocytosis.
  • Food is then transferred to amoebocytes (with pseudopodia) that digest it and transport its nutrients to other cells.

Albert Chen

Anne Ning

http://www.planula.com.au/2004/12/11/sponges-more-than-just-a-bathroom-accessory/

excretory system
Excretory System
  • Possess large openings called oscula from which water (and waste) leave

Albert Chen

Anne Ning

http://www.richard-seaman.com/Underwater/Belize/StillLifes/TubeSpongesThreeOrange.jpg

locomotion musculature
Locomotion/Musculature
  • No muscles
  • Flagellated choanocytes create water currents that bring water in to the spongocoel
  • Osculum can be closed
  • Sponges do not move
  • They are so stationary that the ancient Greeks mistook them for plants

Albert Chen

Anne Ning

http://uwnews.org/uweek/article.aspx?id=35774

skeletal type
Skeletal Type
  • Amoebocytes produce skeletal fibers within the mesohyl
  • Spicules (sharp) are made from calcium carbonate or silica
  • Fibers produced from spongin are more flexible

Albert Chen

Anne Ning

Invertebrate biology [1077-8306] Calcinai year: 2006 vol: 125 issue: 3 pg: 195 -204

reproduction
Reproduction
  • Sponges are hermaphrodites— produce both sperm and eggs (one gender at a time)
    • Gametes are produced by choanocytes or amoebocytes
    • Eggs stay in mesohyl while sperm leave through osculum. (no self-fertilization)
    • Larvae swim (or crawl) somewhere, stick, and develop into sessile adults.
  • They can also reproduce asexually by releasing fragments of adult sponge (gemmules) that can become individual sponges

Albert Chen

Anne Ning

"The Sponges (Phylum Porifera)." The Earth Life Web. Web. 10 Mar. 2010.

<http://www.earthlife.net/inverts/porifera.html>.

http://www.richard-seaman.com/Underwater/Belize/StillLifes/

additional information
Additional Information
  • Sponges are involved in symbiosis with algae. In some examples, the “alga represents the main skeleton of the sponge.”
  • Size—wide range from 1cm to 2m.
  • 9000 species in this phylum, most live in the ocean.
  • Sponges can produce antibiotics to defend against pathogens
  • Few predators because of toxins

Albert Chen

Anne Ning

Invertebrate biology [1077-8306] Calcinai year: 2006 vol: 125 issue: 3 page: 195 -204

http://www.ambergriscaye.com/photogallery/art/Azure%20Vase%20Sponge-elbert.jpg

taxonomy
Taxonomy
  • One taxonomic scheme:

Phylum Porifera

Class Calcarea

Order Calcinia

Order Calcaronia

Class Hexactinellida

Order Amphidiscophora

Order Hexasterophora

Class Demospongiae

Order Homoscleromorpha

Order Tetractinomorpha

Order Ceractinomorpha

Albert Chen

Anne Ning

"The Sponges (Phylum Porifera)." The Earth Life Web. Web. 10 Mar. 2010.

<http://www.earthlife.net/inverts/porifera.html>.

http://funscubadiver.com/gallery/bonaire-scuba-photo/bonaire-purple-tube-sponge.jpg

quiz question 1
QUIZ – Question 1
  • Which of the animal phyla has no true tissues?
    • Porifera
    • Cnidaria
    • Rotifera
    • Annelida

Albert Chen

Anne Ning

answer a porifera
ANSWER: a) Porifera

Albert Chen

Anne Ning

quiz question 2
QUIZ – Question 2
  • Which invertebrate has no true symmetry?
    • Porifera
    • Mollusca
    • Echinodermata
    • Rotifera

Albert Chen

Anne Ning

answer a porifera1
ANSWER: a) Porifera

Albert Chen

Anne Ning

quiz question 3
QUIZ – Question 3
  • Are Porifera protostomes or deuterostomes?
    • Protostomes
    • Deuterostomes
    • Both
    • Neither

Albert Chen

Anne Ning

answer d neither
ANSWER: d) Neither

Albert Chen

Anne Ning

quiz question 4
QUIZ – Question 4
  • Which cells in sponges help to circulate water?
    • Osculum
    • Spicules
    • Amoebocytes
    • Choanocytes

Albert Chen

Anne Ning

answer d choanocytes
ANSWER: d) Choanocytes

Albert Chen

Anne Ning

http://i478.photobucket.com/albums/rr146/Briasaur/YEAH.jpg